276 research outputs found

    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles for theranostic MRI-radiosensitization

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    International audienceA rapid development of gadolinium-based nanoparticles is observed due to their attractive properties as MRI-positive contrast agents. Indeed, they display high relaxivity, adapted biodistribution and passive uptake in the tumor thanks to enhanced permeability and retention effect. In addition to these imaging properties, it has been recently shown that they can act as effective radiosensitizers under different types of irradiation (radiotherapy, neutron therapy or hadron therapy). These new therapeutic modalities pave the way to therapy guided by imaging and to personalized medicine

    Size of submicrometric and nanometric particles affect cellular uptake and biological activity of macrophages in vitro

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    International audienceBackground: Micrometric and nanometric particles are increasingly used in different fields and may exhibit variable toxicity levels depending on their physicochemical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the size parameter on cellular uptake and biological activity, working with well-characterized fluorescent particles. We focused our attention on macrophages, the main target cells of the respiratory system responsible for the phagocytosis of the particles. Methods: FITC fluorescent silica particles of variable submicronic sizes (850, 500, 250 and 150 nm) but with similar surface coating (COOH) were tailored and physico-chemically characterized. These particles were then incubated with the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. After microscopic observations (SEM, TEM, confocal), a quantitative evaluation of the uptake was carried out. Fluorescence detected after a quenching with trypan blue allows us to distinguish and quantify entirely engulfed fluorescent particles from those just adhering to the cell membrane. Finally, these data were compared to the in vitro toxicity assessed in terms of cell damage, inflammation and oxidative stress (evaluated by LDH release, TNF-α and ROS production respectively). Results and conclusion: Particles were well characterized (fluorescence, size distribution, zeta potential, agglomeration and surface groups) and easily visualized after cellular uptake using confocal and electron microscopy. The number of internalized particles was precisely evaluated. Size was found to be an important parameter regarding particles uptake and in vitro toxicity but this latter strongly depends on the particles doses employed

    Improving proton therapy by metal-containing nanoparticles:Nanoscale insights

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    The use of nanoparticles to enhance the effect of radiation-based cancer treatments is a growing field of study and recently, even nanoparticle-induced improvement of proton therapy performance has been investigated. Aiming at a clinical implementation of this approach, it is essential to characterize the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of nanoparticles combined with proton irradiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of platinum- and gadolinium-based nanoparticles on the nanoscale damage induced by a proton beam of therapeutically relevant energy (150 MeV) using plasmid DNA molecular probe. Two conditions of irradiation (0.44 and 3.6 keV/mu m) were considered to mimic the beam properties at the entrance and at the end of the proton track. We demonstrate that the two metal-containing nanoparticles amplify, in particular, the induction of nanosize damages (&gt;2 nm) which are most lethal for cells. More importantly, this effect is even more pronounced at the end of the proton track. This work gives a new insight into the underlying mechanisms on the nanoscale and indicates that the addition of metal-based nanoparticles is a promising strategy not only to increase the cell killing action of fast protons, but also to improve tumor targeting.</p

    Preclincial evaluation of Gold-DTDTPA Nanoparticles As Theranostic Agents In Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

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    International audienceAim: Gold nanoparticles have attracted significant interest in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we evaluated the theranostic potential of dithiolated diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTDTPA) conjugated AuNPs (Au@DTDTPA) for CT-contrast enhancement and radiosensitization in prostate cancer. Materials & methods: In vitro assays determined Au@DTDTPA uptake, cytotoxicity, radiosensitizing potential and DNA damage profiles. Human PC3 xenograft tumor models were used to determine CT enhancement and radiation modulating effects in vivo. Results: Cells exposed to nanoparticles and radiation observed significant additional reduction in survival compared with radiation only. Au@DTDTPA produced a CT enhancement of 10% and a significant extension in tumor growth delay from 16.9 days to 38.3 compared with radiation only. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of Au@DTDTPA to enhance CT-image contrast and simultaneously increases the radiosensitivity of prostate tumors

    Drug development in oncology assisted by noninvasive optical imaging.

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    International audienceEarly and accurate detection of tumors, like the development of targeted treatments, is a major field of research in oncology. The generation of specific vectors, capable of transporting a drug or a contrast agent to the primary tumor site as well as to the remote (micro-) metastasis would be an asset for early diagnosis and cancer therapy. Our goal was to develop new treatments based on the use of tumor-targeted delivery of large biomolecules (DNA, siRNA, peptides, or nanoparticles), able to induce apoptosis while dodging the specific mechanisms developed by tumor cells to resist this programmed cell death. Nonetheless, the insufficient effectiveness of the vectorization systems is still a crucial issue. In this context, we generated new targeting vectors for drug and biomolecules delivery and developed several optical imaging systems for the follow-up and evaluation of these vectorization systems in live mice. Based on our recent work, we present a brief overview of how noninvasive optical imaging in small animals can accelerate the development of targeted therapeutics in oncology

    Internalization pathways into cancer cells of gadolinium-based radiosensitizing nanoparticles

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    International audienceOver the last few decades, nanoparticles have been studied in theranostic field with the objective of exhibiting a long circulation time through the body coupled to major accumulation in tumor tissues, rapid elimination, therapeutic potential and contrast properties. In this context, we developed sub-5 nm gadolinium-based nanoparticles that possess in vitro efficient radiosensitizing effects at moderate concentration when incubated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells (SQ20B). Two main cellular internalization mechanisms were evidenced and quantified: passive diffusion and macropinocytosis. Whereas the amount of particles internalized by passive diffusion is not sufficient to inducein vitro a significant radiosensitizing effect, the cellular uptake by macropinocytosis leads to a successful radiotherapy in a limited range of particles incubation concentration. Macropinocytosis processes in two steps: formation of agglomerates at vicinity of the cell followed by their collect via the lamellipodia (i.e. the "arms") of the cell. The first step is strongly dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the particles, especially their zeta potential that determines the size of the agglomerates and their distance from the cell. These results should permit to control the quantity of particles internalized in the cell cytoplasm, promising ambitious opportunities towards a particle-assisted radiotherapy using lower radiation doses

    Proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion MR imaging monitoring to predict tumor response to interstitial photodynamic therapy for glioblastoma

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    International audienceDespite recent progress in conventional therapeutic approaches, the vast majority of glioblastoma recur locally, indicating that a more aggressive local therapy is required. Interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) appears as a very promising and complementary approach to conventional therapies. However, an optimal fractionation scheme for iPDT remains the indispensable requirement. To achieve that major goal, we suggested following iPDT tumor response by a non-invasive imaging monitoring. Nude rats bearing intracranial glioblastoma U87MG xenografts were treated by iPDT, just after intravenous injection of AGuIX® nanoparticles, encapsulating PDT and imaging agents. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) allowed us an original longitudinal follow-up of post-treatment effects to discriminate early predictive markers. We successfully used conventional MRI, T2 star (T2*), Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and MRS to extract relevant profiles on tissue cytoarchitectural alterations, local vascular disruption and metabolic information on brain tumor biology, achieving earlier assessment of tumor response. From one day post-iPDT, DWI and MRS allowed us to identify promising markers such as the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values, lipids, choline and myoInositol levels that led us to distinguish iPDT responders from non-responders. All these responses give us warning signs well before the tumor escapes and that the growth would be appreciated

    Antibody-targeting of ultra-small nanoparticles enhances imaging sensitivity and enables longitudinal tracking of multiple myeloma

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    Monitoring malignant progression and disease recurrence post-therapy are central challenges to improving the outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Whereas current detection methods that rely upon bone marrow examination allow for precise monitoring of minimal residual disease and can help to elucidate clonal evolution, they do not take into account the spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment. As such, they are uninformative as to the localization of malignant plasma cells and may lead to false negative results. With respect to the latter challenge, clinically-available imaging agents are neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific enough to detect minute plasma cell populations. Here, we sought to explore methods by which to improve detection of MM cells within their natural bone marrow environment, using whole-animal magnetic resonance imaging to longitudinally monitor early-stage disease as well as to enhance tumor detection after systemic therapy. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to demonstrate that ultra-small

    AGuIX® from bench to bedside-Transfer of an ultrasmall theranostic gadolinium-based nanoparticle to clinical medicine

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    International audienceAGuIX® are sub-5 nm nanoparticles made of a polysiloxane matrix and gadolinium chelates. This nanoparticle has been recently accepted in clinical trials in association with radiotherapy. This review will summarize the principal preclinical results that have led to first in man administration. No evidence of toxicity has been observed during regulatory toxicity tests on two animal species (rodents and monkeys). Biodistributions on different animal models have shown passive uptake in tumours due to enhanced permeability and retention effect combined with renal elimination of the nanoparticles after intravenous administration. High radiosensitizing effect has been observed with different types of irradiations in vitro and in vivo on a large number of cancer types (brain, lung, melanoma, head and neck…). The review concludes with the second generation of AGuIX nanoparticles and the first preliminary results on human
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