5,160 research outputs found

    The Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Predictive for Populations at High-Risk for La Crosse Virus Infection in West Virginia

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    Although a large body of literature exists for the environmental risk factors for La Crosse virus (LACV) transmission, the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for developing LACV infection have not been investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for LACV infection in West Virginia from 2003 to 2007, using two forward stepwise discriminant analyses. The discriminant analyses were used to evaluate a number of demographic and socioeconomic factors for their ability to predict: 1) those census tracts with at least one reported case of LACV infection versus those census tracts with no reported cases of LACV infection and 2) to evaluate significantly high-risk clusters for LACV infection versus significantly low-risk clusters for LACV infection. In the first model, a high school education diploma or a general education diploma or less and a lower housing densit

    Global-Vector Representation of the Angular Motion of Few-Particle Systems II

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    The angular motion of a few-body system is described with global vectors which depend on the positions of the particles. The previous study using a single global vector is extended to make it possible to describe both natural and unnatural parity states. Numerical examples include three- and four-nucleon systems interacting via nucleon-nucleon potentials of AV8 type and a 3α\alpha system with a nonlocal αα\alpha\alpha potential. The results using the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis with the global vectors are shown to be in good agreement with those of other methods. A unique role of the unnatural parity component, caused by the tensor force, is clarified in the 01−0^-_1 state of 4^4He. Two-particle correlation function is calculated in the coordinate and momentum spaces to show different characteristics of the interactions employed.Comment: 39 pages, 4 figure

    A Semi-Lagrangian scheme for a modified version of the Hughes model for pedestrian flow

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    In this paper we present a Semi-Lagrangian scheme for a regularized version of the Hughes model for pedestrian flow. Hughes originally proposed a coupled nonlinear PDE system describing the evolution of a large pedestrian group trying to exit a domain as fast as possible. The original model corresponds to a system of a conservation law for the pedestrian density and an Eikonal equation to determine the weighted distance to the exit. We consider this model in presence of small diffusion and discuss the numerical analysis of the proposed Semi-Lagrangian scheme. Furthermore we illustrate the effect of small diffusion on the exit time with various numerical experiments

    Transition probabilities for general birth-death processes with applications in ecology, genetics, and evolution

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    A birth-death process is a continuous-time Markov chain that counts the number of particles in a system over time. In the general process with nn current particles, a new particle is born with instantaneous rate λn\lambda_n and a particle dies with instantaneous rate μn\mu_n. Currently no robust and efficient method exists to evaluate the finite-time transition probabilities in a general birth-death process with arbitrary birth and death rates. In this paper, we first revisit the theory of continued fractions to obtain expressions for the Laplace transforms of these transition probabilities and make explicit an important derivation connecting transition probabilities and continued fractions. We then develop an efficient algorithm for computing these probabilities that analyzes the error associated with approximations in the method. We demonstrate that this error-controlled method agrees with known solutions and outperforms previous approaches to computing these probabilities. Finally, we apply our novel method to several important problems in ecology, evolution, and genetics

    Supracervical hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy: perceived effects on sexual function

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    BACKGROUND: Our investigation sought to compare changes in sexual function following supracervical hysterectomy (SCH) and total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients who underwent supracervical hysterectomy or total abdominal hysterectomy at a tertiary care center. Patients who met criteria for participation were sent a one page confidential, anonymous questionnaire to assess sexual function experienced both pre- and postoperatively. A total of 69 patients in each group were eligible for participation. A multiple logistic regression model was used to analyze measured variables. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent (n = 33) of women undergoing a SCH returned the questionnaire, while 39% (n = 27) of those undergoing a TAH chose to participate. There were no significant demographic differences between the two groups. Patients who underwent TAH reported worse postoperative sexual outcome than SCH patients with respect to intercourse frequency, orgasm frequency and overall sexual satisfaction (P = 0.01, 0.03, and 0.03, respectively). Irrespective of type of hysterectomy, 35% of patients who underwent bilateral salpingoophorectomy (BSO) with hysterectomy experienced worse overall sexual satisfaction compared to 3% of patients who underwent hysterectomy alone (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TAH patients experienced worse postoperative sexual function than SCH patients with respect to intercourse frequency and overall sexual satisfaction. Irrespective of type of hysterectomy, patients who underwent bilateral salpingoophorectomy experienced worse overall sexual satisfaction

    Building nonparametric nn-body force fields using Gaussian process regression

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    Constructing a classical potential suited to simulate a given atomic system is a remarkably difficult task. This chapter presents a framework under which this problem can be tackled, based on the Bayesian construction of nonparametric force fields of a given order using Gaussian process (GP) priors. The formalism of GP regression is first reviewed, particularly in relation to its application in learning local atomic energies and forces. For accurate regression it is fundamental to incorporate prior knowledge into the GP kernel function. To this end, this chapter details how properties of smoothness, invariance and interaction order of a force field can be encoded into corresponding kernel properties. A range of kernels is then proposed, possessing all the required properties and an adjustable parameter nn governing the interaction order modelled. The order nn best suited to describe a given system can be found automatically within the Bayesian framework by maximisation of the marginal likelihood. The procedure is first tested on a toy model of known interaction and later applied to two real materials described at the DFT level of accuracy. The models automatically selected for the two materials were found to be in agreement with physical intuition. More in general, it was found that lower order (simpler) models should be chosen when the data are not sufficient to resolve more complex interactions. Low nn GPs can be further sped up by orders of magnitude by constructing the corresponding tabulated force field, here named "MFF".Comment: 31 pages, 11 figures, book chapte

    Simultaneous endovascular repair of an iatrogenic carotid-jugular fistula and a large iliocaval fistula presenting with multiorgan failure: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Iliocaval fistulas can complicate an iliac artery aneurysm. The clinical presentation is classically a triad of hypotension, a pulsatile mass and heart failure. In this instance, following presentation with multiorgan failure, management included the immediate use of an endovascular stent graft on discovery of the fistula.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>A 62-year-old Caucasian man presented to our tertiary hospital for management of iatrogenic trauma due to the insertion of a central venous line into his right common carotid artery, causing transient ischemic attack. Our patient presented to a peripheral hospital with fever, nausea, vomiting, acute renal failure, acute hepatic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. A provisional diagnosis of sepsis of unknown origin was made. There was a 6.5 cm×6.5 cm right iliac artery aneurysm present on a non-contrast computed tomography scan. An unexpected intra-operative diagnosis of an iliocaval fistula was made following the successful angiographic removal of the central line to his right common carotid artery. Closure of the iliocaval fistula and repair of the iliac aneurysm using a three-piece endovascular aortic stent graft was then undertaken as part of the same procedure. This was an unexpected presentation of an iliocaval fistula.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our case demonstrates that endovascular repair of a large iliac artery aneurysm associated with a caval fistula is safe and effective and can be performed at the time of the diagnostic angiography. The presentation of an iliocaval fistula in this case was unusual which made the diagnosis difficult and unexpected at the time of surgery. The benefit of immediate repair, despite hemodynamic instability during anesthesia, is clear. Our patient had two coronary angiograms through his right femoral artery decades ago. Unusual iatrogenic causes of iliocaval fistulas secondary to previous coronary angiograms with wire and/or catheter manipulation should be considered in patients such as ours.</p
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