6,663 research outputs found

    Human leukocyte antigen-DQA1*04:01 and rs2040406 variants are associated with elevated risk of childhood Burkitt lymphoma

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    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is responsible for many childhood cancers in sub-Saharan Africa, where it is linked to recurrent or chronic infection by Epstein-Barr virus or Plasmodium falciparum. However, whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms, which regulate immune response, are associated with BL has not been well investigated, which limits our understanding of BL etiology. Here we investigate this association among 4,645 children aged 0-15 years, 800 with BL, enrolled in Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, and Malawi. HLA alleles are imputed with accuracy >90% for HLA class I and 85-89% for class II alleles. BL risk is elevated with HLA-DQA1*04:01 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-1.97, P = 3.71 × 10-6), with rs2040406(G) in HLA-DQA1 region (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.26-1.63, P = 4.62 × 10-8), and with amino acid Gln at position 53 versus other variants in HLA-DQA1 (OR = 1.36, P = 2.06 × 10-6). The associations with HLA-DQA1*04:01 (OR = 1.29, P = 0.03) and rs2040406(G) (OR = 1.68, P = 0.019) persist in mutually adjusted models. The higher risk rs2040406(G) variant for BL is associated with decreased HLA-DQB1 expression in eQTLs in EBV transformed lymphocytes. Our results support the role of HLA variation in the etiology of BL and suggest that a promising area of research might be understanding the link between HLA variation and EBV control

    Respirable crystalline silica and lung cancer in community-based studies: impact of job-exposure matrix specifications on exposure–response relationships

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    Objectives: The quantitative job-exposure matrix SYN-JEM consists of various dimensions: job-specific estimates, region-specific estimates, and prior expert ratings of jobs by the semi-quantitative DOM-JEM. We analyzed the effect of different JEM dimensions on the exposure-response relationships between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer risk to investigate how these variations influence estimates of exposure by a quantitative JEM and associated health endpoints. Methods: Using SYN-JEM, and alternative SYN-JEM specifications with varying dimensions included, cumulative silica exposure estimates were assigned to 16 901 lung cancer cases and 20 965 controls pooled from 14 international community-based case-control studies. Exposure-response relationships based on SYN-JEM and alternative SYN-JEM specifications were analyzed using regression analyses (by quartiles and log-transformed continuous silica exposure) and generalized additive models (GAM), adjusted for age, sex, study, cigarette pack-years, time since quitting smoking, and ever employment in occupations with established lung cancer risk. Results: SYN-JEM and alternative specifications generated overall elevated and similar lung cancer odds ratios ranging from 1.13 (1st quartile) to 1.50 (4th quartile). In the categorical and log-linear analyses SYN-JEM with all dimensions included yielded the best model fit, and exclusion of job-specific estimates from SYN-JEM yielded the poorest model fit. Additionally, GAM showed the poorest model fit when excluding job-specific estimates. Conclusion: The established exposure-response relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer was marginally influenced by varying the dimensions of SYN-JEM. Optimized modelling of exposure-response relationships will be obtained when incorporating all relevant dimensions, namely prior rating, job, time, and region. Quantitative job-specific estimates appeared to be the most prominent dimension for this general population JEM

    Probing the CP nature of the top–Higgs Yukawa coupling in t t ¯ H and tH events with H → b b ¯ decays using the ATLAS detector at the LHC