205 research outputs found

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth

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    Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good therapeutic relationship and working alliance, cognitive restructuring, repeated exposure with reduction of avoidance behavior, and skills training comprise the core procedures for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth

    Underidentification of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Females: A Case Series Illustrating the Unique Presentation of this Disorder in Young Women

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    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more often in males than females, with the male-to-female gender ratio reported to be around 4.3:1 to 5:1. It is possible that the underrecognition of ASD in females partially contributes to this uneven ratio. Recent attention has been placed on understanding the processes that give rise to this gender difference in ASD prevalence. Socialization may contribute to the unique presentation of ASD in females, which may underlie this condition's subsequent underidentification in this group.The purpose of this case series is to demonstrate how symptoms of ASD may uniquely manifest in females without co-occurring intellectual impairment.An examination of three case examples of young women diagnosed with ASD will illustrate the processes that contribute to the atypical manifestation and underidentification of ASD in females.Across cases, the females in this study demonstrated shared symptom presentations within three domains: 1) unique core symptom manifestation (insistence on sameness, lack of social engagement, and social processing difficulties); 2) heightened psychiatric comorbidities with internalizing disorders (anxiety, depression, and borderline personality traits); and 3) emotional dysregulation. These three domains reflect specific processes that may help to explain the underidentification of ASD in females via diagnostic overshadowing.Consideration of atypical symptom presentations, heightened comorbidities, and emotion regulation difficulties may help with the understanding of why ASD symptoms in females are commonly underidentified or identified later than they are in males. Social difficulties in combination with internalizing psychiatric disorders and emotional dysregulation may lead to the development of a specific symptom presentation in females that obscures the detection of ASD symptoms. Suggestions for clinical practice are made to promote the accurate identification of ASD and to inform case formulation and treatment planning

    Preparing Women In Academic Psychology for Their First Compensation Negotiation: A Panel Perspective of Challenges & Future Recommendations

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    Successfully landing and then negotiating for your first position is an exciting and challenging task. In this paper, we use a narrative review to present the literature on gender and negotiation with a focus on academic psychology work contexts. We highlight important differences between factors that are within the individual’s control vs. factors at the institutional or societal level. Drawing directly from the research literature, we make several recommendations for women trying to manage negotiation in contexts that are likely biased against them at the institutional and cultural level. For example, we recommend that women take steps to reduce situational ambiguity, use niceness and assertion strategically, and cognitive re-framing to improve performance. We also make parallel recommendations for institutions, to create a more equal playing field in employment negotiations in academia. We conclude with expert advice on how to manage the important task of negotiation throughout the career from successful psychologists to contextualize the research findings at the personal level

    Clinical Decision Making About Child and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders Using the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment

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    Anxiety disorders are common among children, but can be difficult to diagnose. An actuarial approach to the diagnosis of anxiety may improve the efficiency and accuracy of the process. The objectives of this study were to determine the clinical utility of the Achenbach CBCL and YSR, two widely used assessment tools, for diagnosing anxiety disorders in youth, and to aid clinicians in incorporating scale scores into an actuarial approach to diagnosis through a clinical vignette

    Crianças com medos noturnos: Conteúdo dos medos, hábitos e padrões de sono e problemas de comportamento

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    Nighttime fears in children can affect their sleep and daytime behaviors. This study aimed to verify in preschoolers with intense nocturnal fears: 1) the content of fears; 2) the effect of sex and age on the frequency and contents of fears; and 3) the habits and patterns of sleep and behavior problems of these children. The study included a sample of 71 parents of children aged 4 to 6 years old (51% girls) with intense nighttime fears, who answered questions about fears, sleep and behavior problems of their children. Fear of “ghosts”, “dark”, and “scary dreams” were the most#common fears, while “dark” and “sleeping away from parents” were the most intense. Few gender differences were found; however, age was a significant variable for 27.2% of the fears assessed – with older children presenting more fear than the younger. Inadequate sleep patterns and sleep routines were identified, such as late bedtime, delay to fall asleep, and frequent night waking and also internalizing behavior problems. These results suggest the need for treatment aimed at frequent nighttime fears, similar for boys and girls, and general guidelines on sleep hygiene provided to parents of preschoolers as a way to prevent inappropriate habits and patterns.Os medos noturnos em crianças podem afetar o seu sono e os seus comportamentos diurnos. Este estudo objetivou verificar em crianças em idade pré-escolar com intensos medos noturnos: 1) o conteúdo dos medos; 2) o efeito do sexo e da idade na frequência e conteúdo dos medos; e 3) os hábitos e padrões de sono e os problemas de comportamento. O estudo envolveu uma amostra de 71 pais de crianças com idade entre os 4 e os 6 anos (51% meninas) com intensos medos noturnos, que responderam a questionários sobre conteúdos de medo, hábitos e padrões de sono e problemas de comportamento dos filhos. Os medos de “fantasma”, “escuro” e “sonhos assustados” foram os mais comuns, enquanto que “escuro” e “dormir longe dos pais” foram os mais intensos. Poucas diferenças foram encontradas quanto ao sexo, todavia, a idade foi uma variável significativa para 27.2% dos medos avaliados – os mais velhos apresentaram mais medo. Padrões e rotina de sono inadequados foram identificados: horários tardios de ir para a cama, demora para adormecer, e frequentes despertares noturnos e problemas de comportamento internalizantes. Estes resultados sugerem a necessidade de tratamentos voltados para os medos noturnos frequentes, semelhantes para meninos e meninas e que sejam fornecidas orientações sobre higiene do sono para pais de crianças em idade pré-escolar como prevenção de hábitos e padrões inadequados

    Efficacy of D-cycloserine augmented brief intensive cognitive-behavioural therapy for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A randomised clinical trial

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    Objective: To examine the efficacy of weight-adjusted D-cycloserine (DCS) (35 or 70 mg) relative to placebo augmentation of intensive exposure therapy for youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a double-blind, randomised controlled trial, and examine whether antidepressant medication or patient age moderated outcomes. Methods: Youth (n = 100, 7–17 years) with OCD were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to either DCS + exposure (n = 49) or placebo + exposure (n = 51). Assessments occurred posttreatment, 1 month later, and at 3 and 6 months. Pills were ingested immediately before sessions. Results: Significant improvements on all outcomes were observed at posttreatment, and to 6-month follow-up. Treatment arms did not differ across time, with no significant time-by-medication interactions on symptom severity (T1 to T2 estimate: 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −11.2 to −7.4, and estimate −10.7, 95% CI: −12.6 to −8.7), diagnostic severity (T1 to T2 estimate: −2.0, 95% CI: −2.4 to −1.5 and estimate −2.5, 95% CI: −3.0 to −2.0) or global functioning (T1 to T2 estimate: 13.8, 95% CI: 10.6 to 17.0, and estimate 16.6, 95% CI: 13.2 to 19.9). Neither antidepressants at baseline nor age moderated primary outcomes. There were significantly fewer responders/remitters at 1- and 6-month follow-up among youth in the DCS condition stabilised on SSRIs, relative to youth not taking SSRIs. Conclusions: DCS augmented intensive exposure therapy did not result in overall additional benefits relative to placebo. Intensive exposure proved effective in reducing symptoms for the overall sample

    The effectiveness, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for maltreated children and adolescents: an evidence synthesis.

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    BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN: For effectiveness, we included any controlled study. Other study designs were considered for economic decision modelling. For acceptability, we included any study that asked participants for their views. PARTICIPANTS: Children and young people up to 24 years 11 months, who had experienced maltreatment before the age of 17 years 11 months. INTERVENTIONS: Any psychosocial intervention provided in any setting aiming to address the consequences of maltreatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychological distress [particularly post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety, and self-harm], behaviour, social functioning, quality of life and acceptability. METHODS: Young Persons and Professional Advisory Groups guided the project, which was conducted in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration and NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Departures from the published protocol were recorded and explained. Meta-analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses of available data were undertaken where possible. RESULTS: We identified 198 effectiveness studies (including 62 randomised trials); six economic evaluations (five using trial data and one decision-analytic model); and 73 studies investigating treatment acceptability. Pooled data on cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for sexual abuse suggested post-treatment reductions in PTSD [standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.44 (95% CI -4.43 to -1.53)], depression [mean difference -2.83 (95% CI -4.53 to -1.13)] and anxiety [SMD -0.23 (95% CI -0.03 to -0.42)]. No differences were observed for post-treatment sexualised behaviour, externalising behaviour, behaviour management skills of parents, or parental support to the child. Findings from attachment-focused interventions suggested improvements in secure attachment [odds ratio 0.14 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.70)] and reductions in disorganised behaviour [SMD 0.23 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.42)], but no differences in avoidant attachment or externalising behaviour. Few studies addressed the role of caregivers, or the impact of the therapist-child relationship. Economic evaluations suffered methodological limitations and provided conflicting results. As a result, decision-analytic modelling was not possible, but cost-effectiveness analysis using effectiveness data from meta-analyses was undertaken for the most promising intervention: CBT for sexual abuse. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of CBT were limited by the lack of cost data beyond the cost of CBT itself. CONCLUSIONS: It is not possible to draw firm conclusions about which interventions are effective for children with different maltreatment profiles, which are of no benefit or are harmful, and which factors encourage people to seek therapy, accept the offer of therapy and actively engage with therapy. Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions. LIMITATIONS: Studies were largely conducted outside the UK. The heterogeneity of outcomes and measures seriously impacted on the ability to conduct meta-analyses. FUTURE WORK: Studies are needed that assess the effectiveness of interventions within a UK context, which address the wider effects of maltreatment, as well as specific clinical outcomes. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013003889. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5):Development and First Psychometric Evidence of a New Scale for Assessing Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of Children and Adolescents

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    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a scale consisting of two parts: part one consists of 28 items and measures the major anxiety disorders including separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas part two contains 22 items that focus on specific phobias and (given its overlap with situational phobias) agoraphobia. In general, the face validity of the new scale was good; most of its items were successfully linked to the intended anxiety disorders. Notable exceptions were the selective mutism items, which were frequently considered as symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and some specific phobia items especially of the natural environment, situational and other type, that were regularly assigned to an incorrect category. A preliminary investigation of the YAM-5 in non-clinical (N = 132) and clinically referred (N = 64) children and adolescents indicated that the measure was easy to complete by youngsters. In addition, support was found for the psychometric qualities of the measure: that is, the internal consistency was good for both parts, as well as for most of the subscales, the parent-child agreement appeared satisfactory, and there was also evidence for the validity of the scale. The YAM-5 holds promise as a tool for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents

    A STUDY OF NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT AS RELATED TO PERSISTENCE BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

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