73 research outputs found

    The impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on classical cardiovascular disease risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study

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    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Advanced measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with CVD risk factors. The present study aimed to examine whether CVD risk factors can predict clinic-based measures of CRF, using the Siconolfi step test and to determine if exercise can improve RA patients’ cardiovascular health. Sixty-five RA patients (46 females, age 58 ± 11 years) completed assessments of CRF, CVD risk factors, body composition and RA characteristics. Ten patients participated in a follow-up 8-week exercise intervention. CRF was low (22 ml kg−1 min−1) and associated with higher diastolic blood pressure (r = − 0.37, p = 0.002), higher global CVD risk (r = − 0.267, p = 0.031) and worse body composition profile (body fat, r = − 0.48, p < 0.001; waist, r = − 0.65, p < 0.001; hip, r = − 0.58, p < 0.001). Regular exercise significantly improved CRF (p = 0.021), lower body strength (p < 0.001), agility (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.021), body fat (p = 0.018), waist circumference (p = 0.035), hip circumference (p = 0.016), disease activity (p = 0.002), disability (p = 0.007) and QoL (p = 0.004). Elevated diastolic blood pressure and worse body composition profile are strong predictors of clinic-based measures of CRF. CRF is an important determinant of CVD risk and warrants inclusion in the routine assessment of RA patients. Regular exercise can improve CRF and CVD risk factors without any exacerbation of disease activity and should be offered as part of routine care

    Some approximation problems in the theory of stationary processes

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    AbstractIn this paper, necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of a general (multivariate) stationary process are obtained. These subsume all the known criteria of regularity for such processes

    Promotion of healthy aging within a community center through behavior change: health and fitness findings from the AgeWell pilot randomized controlled trial

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    The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine if behavior change through individual goal setting (GS) could promote healthy aging, including health and fitness benefits in older adults who attended a community “AgeWell” Center for 12 months. Seventy-five older adults were randomly allocated to either a control or a GS group. Health outcomes were measured at baseline and after 12 months of the participants’ having access to the exception of Agewell Center facilities. The findings demonstrate that participation in the Center in itself was beneficial, with improved body composition and reduced cardiovascular risk in both groups (p < .05), and that this kind of community-based resource offers valuable potential for promoting protective behaviors and reducing health risk. However, a specific focus on identifying individual behavior change goals was required in order to achieve increased activity engagement (p < .05) and to bring about more substantial improvements in a range of health, diet, and physical function measures (p < .05)

    Cost-effectiveness findings from the Agewell pilot study of behaviour change to promote health and wellbeing in later life

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    Background: Participation in cognitive and physical activities may help to maintain health and wellbeing in older people. The Agewell study explored the feasibility of increasing cognitive and physical activity in older people through a goal-setting approach. This paper describes the findings of the cost-effectiveness analysis.Method: Individuals over the age of 50 and attending an Agewell centre in North Wales were randomised to one of three conditions: control (IC), goal-setting (GS), or goal-setting with mentoring (GM). We undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing GS vs. IC, GM vs. IC and GM vs. GS. The primary outcome measure for this analysis was the QALY, calculated using the EQ-5D. Participants’ health and social care contacts were recorded and costed using national unit costs.Results: Seventy participants were followed-up at 12 months. Intervention set up and delivery costs were £252 per participant in the GS arm and £269 per participant in the GM arm. Mean health and social care costs over 12 months were £1,240 (s.d. £3,496) per participant in the IC arm, £1,259 (s.d. £3,826) per participant in the GS arm and £1,164 (s.d. £2,312) per participant in the GM arm. At a willingness to pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY there was a 65% probability that GS was cost-effective compared to IC (ICER of £1,070). However, there was only a 41% probability that GM was cost-effective compared to IC (ICER of £2,830) at a threshold of £20,000 per QALY.Conclusion: Setting up and running the community based intervention was feasible. Due to the small sample size it is not possible to draw a firm conclusion about cost-effectiveness; however, our preliminary results suggest that goalsetting is likely to be cost-effective compared to the control condition of no goal-setting, the addition of mentoring was effective but not cost-effective

    Benefits of Exercise in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    This paper aims to highlight the importance of exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to demonstrate the multitude of beneficial effects that properly designed exercise training has in this population. RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease characterised by decrements to joint health including joint pain and inflammation, fatigue, increased incidence and progression of cardiovascular disease, and accelerated loss of muscle mass, that is, “rheumatoid cachexia”. These factors contribute to functional limitation, disability, comorbidities, and reduced quality of life. Exercise training for RA patients has been shown to be efficacious in reversing cachexia and substantially improving function without exacerbating disease activity and is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, all RA patients should be encouraged to include aerobic and resistance exercise training as part of routine care. Understanding the perceptions of RA patients and health professionals to exercise is key to patients initiating and adhering to effective exercise training

    Are profiles of social, cultural, and economic capital related to living well with dementia? Longitudinal findings from the IDEAL programme

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    Rationale: Research exploring social, cultural, and economic capital among people with dementia is scarce. Objective: We describe levels of social, cultural, and economic capital in people with dementia at baseline and levels of social and cultural capital 12 and 24 months later. We identify groups of people with dementia having different combinations of capital and explore whether the identified groups differ in personal characteristics at baseline and in quality of life (QoL), satisfaction with life (SwL), and well-being over time. Method: Baseline, 12-months, and 24-months data from 1537 people with dementia (age, mean = 76.4 years; SD = 8.5; Alzheimer's Disease = 55.4%) enrolled in the IDEAL cohort were analyzed. Social (interactions with friends, civic participation, social participation, neighborhood trust, social network), cultural (education, cultural participation) and economic (annual income) capital, QoL, SwL, well-being, and personal characteristics were assessed. Results: Compared to people their age, people with dementia reported slightly lower frequency of interactions with friends, social networks and social support, civic and cultural participation, education, and annual income. However, social engagement, cultural participation, and annual income are low among British older adults. Latent profile analysis identified four groups that, based on their levels of social, cultural, and economic capital were named socially and economically privileged (18.0% of participants); financially secure (21.0% of participants); low capital (36.9% of participants); and very low capital (24.1% of participants). Latent growth curve models showed that over time QoL, SwL, and well-being remained largely stable for all groups. Compared to the low capital group, the socially and economically privileged and financially secure groups had higher QoL and well-being whereas the group with very low capital had poorer QoL, SwL, and well-being. Conclusions: New policies and efforts from the government, philanthropic foundations, the voluntary and primary care sectors are needed to address social, cultural, and economic disadvantage among people with dementia

    Comorbid health conditions and their impact on social isolation, loneliness, quality of life, and well-being in people with dementia: longitudinal findings from the IDEAL programme

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    BackgroundMost people with dementia have multiple health conditions. This study explores (1) number and type of health condition(s) in people with dementia overall and in relation to age, sex, dementia type, and cognition; (2) change in number of health conditions over two years; and (3) whether over time the number of health conditions at baseline is related to social isolation, loneliness, quality of life, and/or well-being.MethodsLongitudinal data from the IDEAL (Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life) cohort were used. Participants comprised people with dementia (n = 1490) living in the community (at baseline) in Great Britain. Health conditions using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, cognition, social isolation, loneliness, quality of life, and well-being were assessed over two years. Mixed effects modelling was used.ResultsOn average participants had 1.8 health conditions at baseline, excluding dementia; increasing to 2.5 conditions over two years. Those with vascular dementia or mixed (Alzheimer’s and vascular) dementia had more health conditions than those with Alzheimer’s disease. People aged ≥ 80 had more health conditions than those aged < 65 years. At baseline having more health conditions was associated with increased loneliness, poorer quality of life, and poorer well-being, but was either minimally or not associated with cognition, sex, and social isolation. Number of health conditions had either minimal or no influence on these variables over time.ConclusionsPeople with dementia in IDEAL generally had multiple health conditions and those with more health conditions were lonelier, had poorer quality of life, and poorer well-being
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