156 research outputs found

    The IASLC Early Lung Imaging Confederation (ELIC) Open-Source Deep Learning and Quantitative Measurement Initiative.

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    BackgroundWith global adoption of CT lung cancer screening, there is increasing interest to use artificial intelligence (AI) deep learning methods to improve the clinical management process. To enable AI research using an open source, cloud-based, globally distributed, screening CT imaging dataset and computational environment that are compliant with the most stringent international privacy regulations that also protects the intellectual properties of researchers, the International Association of the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) sponsored development of the Early Lung Imaging Confederation (ELIC) resource in 2018. The objective of this report is to describe the updated capabilities of ELIC and illustrate how this resource can be utilized for clinically relevant AI research.MethodsIn this second Phase of the initiative, metadata and screening CT scans from two time points were collected from 100 screening participants in seven countries. An automated deep learning AI lung segmentation algorithm, automated quantitative emphysema metrics, and a quantitative lung nodule volume measurement algorithm were run on these scans.ResultsA total of 1,394 CTs were collected from 697 participants. The LAV950 quantitative emphysema metric was found to be potentially useful in distinguishing lung cancer from benign cases using a combined slice thickness ≄ 2.5 mm. Lung nodule volume change measurements had better sensitivity and specificity for classifying malignant from benign lung nodules when applied to solid lung nodules from high quality CT scans.ConclusionThese initial experiments demonstrated that ELIC can support deep learning AI and quantitative imaging analyses on diverse and globally distributed cloud-based datasets

    Prognostic role of preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography with an image-based harmonization technique: A multicenter retrospective studyCentral MessagePerspective

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    Objectives: Despite the prognostic impacts of preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography–based prognosis prediction has not been used clinically because of the disparity in data between institutions. By applying an image-based harmonized approach, we evaluated the prognostic roles of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography parameters in clinical stage I non–small cell lung cancer. Methods: We retrospectively examined 495 patients with clinical stage I non–small cell lung cancer who underwent fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography examinations before pulmonary resection between 2013 and 2014 at 4 institutions. Three different harmonization techniques were applied, and an image-based harmonization, which showed the best-fit results, was used in the further analyses to evaluate the prognostic roles of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography parameters. Results: Cutoff values of image-based harmonized fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography parameters, maximum standardized uptake, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves that distinguish pathologic high invasiveness of tumors. Among these parameters, only the maximum standardized uptake was an independent prognostic factor in recurrence-free and overall survivals in univariate and multivariate analyses. High image-based maximum standardized uptake value was associated with squamous histology or lung adenocarcinomas with higher pathologic grades. In subgroup analyses defined by ground-glass opacity status and histology or by clinical stages, the prognostic impact of image-based maximum standardized uptake value was always the highest compared with other fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography parameters. Conclusions: The image-based fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography harmonization was the best fit, and the image-based maximum standardized uptake was the most important prognostic marker in all patients and in subgroups defined by ground-glass opacity status and histology in surgically resected clinical stage I non–small cell lung cancers

    Performance of Ultra-Rapid Idyllaℱ EGFR Mutation Test in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Its Potential at Clinical Molecular Screening

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    Background: The Idyllaℱ EGFR Mutation Test is an ultra-rapid single-gene test that detects epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Here, we compared the performance of the Idylla EGFR Mutation Test with the Cobas¼ EGFR Mutation Test v2. Methods: Surgically resected NSCLC specimens obtained at two Japanese institutions (N = 170) were examined. The Idylla EGFR Mutation Test and the Cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2 were performed independently and the results were compared. For discordant cases, the Ion AmpliSeq Colon and Lung Cancer Research Panel V2 was performed. Results: After the exclusion of five inadequate/invalid samples, 165 cases were evaluated. EGFR mutation analysis revealed 52 were positive and 107 were negative for EGFR mutation in both assays (overall concordance rate: 96.4%). Analyses of the six discordant cases revealed that the Idylla EGFR Mutation Test was correct in four and the Cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2 was correct in two. In a trial calculation, the combination of the Idylla EGFR Mutation Test followed by a multi-gene panel test will reduce molecular screening expenses if applied to a cohort with EGFR mutation frequency >17.9%. Conclusions: We demonstrated the accuracy and potential clinical utility of the Idylla EGFR Mutation Test as a molecular screening platform in terms of turnaround time and molecular testing cost if applied to a cohort with a high EGFR mutation incidence (>17.9%)

    Effectiveness and Safety of Atezolizumab Monotherapy in Previously Treated Japanese Patients With Unresectable Advanced or Recurrent NSCLC: A Multicenter, Prospective, Observational Study (J-TAIL)

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    Introduction: The efficacy and safety of atezolizumab in previously treated patients with NSCLC have been established in the registrational phase 3 OAK trial. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and safety of atezolizumab monotherapy in a large real-world cohort to confirm the reproducibility of the results of the registrational trial. Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, single-arm observational study. Consecutive patients with previously treated NSCLC scheduled to receive atezolizumab monotherapy were enrolled. The primary end point was the 18-month overall survival (OS) rate. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) and immune-related AEs was evaluated. Results: Overall, 1002 patients were included in the safety analysis set and 1000 in the full analysis set. Median follow-up was 11.5 months. Of the full analysis set, 62% were ineligible for the OAK trial (OAK-unlike subpopulation). The 18-month OS rate was 41.1%, with a median OS of 13.0 months (95% confidence interval: 12.2–15.1). The 18-month OS rate was 49.4% and 36.1% in OAK-like and OAK-unlike subpopulations, respectively; that in patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status greater than or equal to 2 was 14.3%. The incidence of AEs overall, in the OAK-like, and OAK-unlike subpopulations was 43.9%, 46.2%, and 42.5%; that of immune-related AEs was 19.0%, 20.1%, and 18.3%, respectively. Conclusions: The findings suggest that atezolizumab may be effective and safe for previously treated patients with NSCLC in real-world settings; however, atezolizumab administration should be considered carefully regarding the benefit–risk balance for the OAK-unlike subpopulation, especially in patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status greater than or equal to 2

    Plain language summary of the CheckMate 816 study results: nivolumab plus chemotherapy given before surgery for non–small-cell lung cancer

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    Immunotherapy; Neoadjuvant treatment; Presurgery treatmentImmunoterĂ pia; Tractament neoadjuvant; Tractament preoperatoriInmunoterapia; Tratamiento neoadyuvante; Tratamiento preoperatorioWhat is this summary about?: In this article, we summarize results from the ongoing phase 3 CheckMate 816 clinical study that were published in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2022. The goal of CheckMate 816 was to find out if nivolumab, an immunotherapy that activates a person's immune system (the body's natural defense system) to fight cancer, plus chemotherapy works better than chemotherapy alone when given before surgery in people with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that can be removed surgically (resectable NSCLC). What happened in the study?: Adults who had not previously taken medications to treat NSCLC and whose cancer could be removed with surgery were included in CheckMate 816. During this study, a computer randomly assigned the treatment each person would receive before surgery for NSCLC. In total, 179 people were randomly assigned to receive nivolumab plus chemotherapy, and 179 people were randomly assigned to receive chemotherapy alone. The researchers assessed whether people who received nivolumab plus chemotherapy lived longer without the cancer geting worse or coming back and whether there were any cancer cells left in the tumor and lymph nodes removed by surgery. The researchers also assessed how adding nivolumab to chemotherapy affected the timing and outcomes of surgery and whether the combination of these drugs was safe. What were the results?: Researchers found that people who took nivolumab plus chemotherapy lived longer without the cancer getting worse or coming back compared with those who took chemotherapy alone. More people in the nivolumab plus chemotherapy group had no cancer cells left in the tumor and lymph nodes removed by surgery. Most people went on to have surgery in both treatment groups; the people who took nivolumab plus chemotherapy instead of chemotherapy alone had less extensive surgeries and were more likely to have good outcomes after less extensive surgeries. Adding nivolumab to chemotherapy did not lead to an increase in the rate of side effects compared with chemotherapy alone, and side effects were generally mild and manageable. What do the results of the study mean?: Results from CheckMate 816 support the benefit of using nivolumab plus chemotherapy before surgery for people with resectable NSCLC.The CheckMate 816 study was sponsored by Bristol Myers Squibb

    International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Study of the Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 on International Lung Cancer Clinical Trials

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    Introduction: To evaluate the effects of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on lung cancer trials, we surveyed investigators and collected aggregate enrollment data for lung cancer trials across the world before and during the pandemic. Methods: A Data Collection Survey collected aggregate monthly enrollment numbers from 294 global lung cancer trials for 2019 to 2020. A 64-question Action Survey evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on clinical trials and identified mitigation strategies implemented. Results: Clinical trial enrollment declined from 2019 to 2020 by 14% globally. Most reductions in enrollment occurred in April to June where we found significant decreases in individual site enrollment (p = 0.0309). Enrollment was not significantly different in October 2019 to December of 2019 versus 2020 (p = 0.25). The most frequent challenges identified by the Action Survey (N = 172) were fewer eligible patients (63%), decrease in protocol compliance (56%), and suspension of trials (54%). Patient-specific challenges included access to trial site (49%), ability to travel (54%), and willingness to visit the site (59%). The most frequent mitigation strategies included modified monitoring requirements (47%), telehealth visits (45%), modified required visits (25%), mail-order medications (25%), and laboratory (27%) and radiology (21%) tests at nonstudy facilities. Sites that felt the most effective mitigation strategies were telehealth visits (85%), remote patient-reported symptom collection (85%), off-site procedures (85%), and remote consenting (89%). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic created many challenges for lung cancer clinical trials conduct and enrollment. Mitigation strategies were used and, although the pandemic worsened, trial enrollment improved. A more flexible approach may improve enrollment and access to clinical trials, even beyond the pandemic

    〈Case Report〉 A case of “a left middle lobe of lung” with a left superior vena cava in a patient who underwent lung cancer surgery

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    [Abstract] We report a case of an 82-year-old man with displaced anomalous bronchus and persistent left superior vena cava who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery for lung cancer treatment. Chest computed tomography showed a 3.4×2.5 cm solid tumor in the S4 segment of the left lung. Bronchoscopy showed that B1+2+B3 and B4+5 branched from the left main bronchus separately, and primary lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed using a transbronchial lung biopsy obtained from B4. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography showed that the left main pulmonary artery passed between B 1+2 + B3 and B 4+5 and the left lung had three lobes like the right lung. Furthermore, a persistent left superior vena cava was observed. The patient underwent left middle lobectomy and no recurrence was noted for 9 years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of middle lobectomy in the left lung for treating lung cancer

    Perioperative Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

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    The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These achievements inspired investigators and pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with early-stage NSCLC because both adjuvant and neoadjuvant platinum-based doublet chemotherapies (PT-DCs) showed only a 5% improvement in 5-year overall survival. IMpower010, a phase 3 trial (P3), showed that adjuvant PT-DC followed by maintenance atezolitumab significantly prolonged disease-free survival over adjuvant PT-DC alone (hazard ratio, 0.79; stage II to IIIA). Since conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can promote immunogenic cell death, releasing tumour antigens from dead tumour cells, ICI combination therapies with conventional therapies are widely proposed. The Checkmate 816 trial (P3) indicated a significantly higher pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant nivolumab/PT-DC combination therapy than of neoadjuvant PT-DC alone (odds ratio, 13.9, for stage IB to IIIA). Detection of circulating tumour DNA is highly anticipated for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Multimodal approaches and new ICI agents are being attempted to improve the efficacy of ICI treatment in phase 2 trials. This review presents the development of perioperative treatment using ICIs in patients with NSCLC while discussing problems and perspectives