103 research outputs found

    Dietary recommendations for Ethiopians on the basis of priority diet-related diseases and causes of death in Ethiopia: An umbrella review

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    Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) need to be evidence-based. As part of the development of Ethiopian FBDG, we conducted an umbrella review to develop dietary recommendations. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), deficiencies of vitamin A, zinc, calcium, or folate, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were selected as a priority. Systematic reviews were eligible if they investigated the impact of foods, food groups, diet, or dietary patterns on priority diseases. After a search, 1513 articles were identified in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar published from January 2014 to December 2021. The results showed that 19 out of 164 systematic reviews reported the impact of diet on PEM or micronutrient deficiencies. Daily 30–90 g whole-grain consumption reduces risk of CVD and T2DM. Pulses improve protein status, and consuming 50–150 g/d is associated with a reduced incidence of CVD and T2DM. Nuts are a good source of minerals, and consuming 15–35 g/d improves antioxidant status and is inversely associated with CVD risk. A daily intake of 200–300 mL of milk and dairy foods is a good source of calcium and contributes to bone mineral density. Limiting processed meat intake to <50 g/d reduces CVD risk. Fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamins A and C. CVD and T2DM risks are reduced by consuming 200–300 g of vegetables plus fruits daily. Daily sugar consumption should be below 10% of total energy to lower risk of obesity, CVD, and T2DM. Plant-based fat has favorable nutrient profiles and modest saturated fat content. The association of saturated fatty acids with CVD and T2DM is inconclusive, but intake should be limited because of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising effect. Plant-based diets lower risk of CVD and T2DM but reduce micronutrient bioavailability. The review concludes with 9 key dietary recommendations proposed to be implemented in the Ethiopian FBDG. This review was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42019125490).PRIFPRI3; ISI; CRP4; DCA2 Promoting Healthy Diets and Nutrition for all; Capacity StrengtheningNutrition, Diets, and Health (NDH); Food and Nutrition Policy; A4NHCGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH

    The feasibility of implementing food-based dietary guidelines and food graphics in Ethiopia

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    This study aimed to test the acceptability, cultural appropriateness, consumers' understanding, and practicality of the Ethiopian food-based dietary guideline's messages, tips, and food graphics. A qualitative study design was applied with focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Four different participant groups were included: 40 consumers, 15 high-level nutrition experts, 30 frontline community health extension workers (HEWs), and 15 agriculture extension workers (AEWs) to incorporate different stakeholder perspectives. Data collection was conducted using 7 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 key informant interviews (KIIs). Collected data were coded and analyzed using QSR International NVivo V.11 software. Most of the study participants were highly interested in implementing the dietary guidelines once these guidelines are officially released. Based on the participants' views, most of the messages align with the current nutrition education materials implemented in the country except the messages about physical activity and alcohol intake. However, participants suggested defining technical terms such as ultra-processing, whole grain, safe and balanced diet in simpler terms for a better understanding. Practicality, affordability, availability, and access to the market were the major barriers reported for adherence to the guidelines. To be more inclusive of cultural and religious beliefs, findings show that the guideline should address fasting and traditional cooking methods. In conclusion, the dietary guidelines were well received by most stakeholders. They are thought to be feasible once feedback on wording, affordability, availability, and access is considered in the messages, tips, and graphic designs

    Developing feasible healthy diets for Ethiopian women of reproductive age: a linear goal programming approach

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    Abstract Objective: To develop a healthy diet for Ethiopian women closely resembling their current diet and taking fasting periods into account while tracking the cost difference. Design: Linear goal programming models were built for three scenarios (non-fasting, continuous fasting and intermittent fasting). Each model minimised a function of deviations from nutrient reference values for eleven nutrients (protein, Ca, Fe, Zn, folate, and the vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12). The energy intake in optimised diets could only deviate 5 % from the current diet. Settings: Five regions are included in the urban and rural areas of Ethiopia. Participants: Two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) were collected from 494 Ethiopian women of reproductive age from November to December 2019. Results: Women’s mean energy intake was well above 2000 kcal across all socio-demographic subgroups. Compared to the current diet, the estimated intake of several food groups was considerably higher in the optimised modelled diets, that is, milk and dairy foods (396 v. 30 g/d), nuts and seeds (20 v. 1 g/d) and fruits (200 v. 7 g/d). Except for Ca and vitamin B12 intake in the continuous fasting diet, the proposed diets provide an adequate intake of the targeted micronutrients. The proposed diets had a maximum cost of 120 Ethiopian birrs ($3·5) per d, twice the current diet’s cost. Conclusion: The modelled diets may be feasible for women of reproductive age as they are close to their current diets and fulfil their energy and nutrient demands. However, the costs may be a barrier to implementation

    Developing feasible healthy diets for Ethiopian women of reproductive age: A linear goal programming approach

    No full text
    Objective: To develop a healthy diet for Ethiopian women closely resembling their current diet and taking fasting periods into account while tracking the cost difference. Design: Linear goal programming models were built for three scenarios (non-fasting, continuous fasting and intermittent fasting). Each model minimised a function of deviations from nutrient reference values for eleven nutrients (protein, Ca, Fe, Zn, folate, and the vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12). The energy intake in optimised diets could only deviate 5 % from the current diet. Settings: Five regions are included in the urban and rural areas of Ethiopia. Participants: Two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) were collected from 494 Ethiopian women of reproductive age from November to December 2019. Results: Women’s mean energy intake was well above 2000 kcal across all socio-demographic subgroups. Compared to the current diet, the estimated intake of several food groups was considerably higher in the optimised modelled diets, that is, milk and dairy foods (396 v. 30 g/d), nuts and seeds (20 v. 1 g/d) and fruits (200 v. 7 g/d). Except for Ca and vitamin B12 intake in the continuous fasting diet, the proposed diets provide an adequate intake of the targeted micronutrients. The proposed diets had a maximum cost of 120 Ethiopian birrs ($3·5) per d, twice the current diet’s cost. Conclusion: The modelled diets may be feasible for women of reproductive age as they are close to their current diets and fulfil their energy and nutrient demands. However, the costs may be a barrier to implementation.PRIFPRI3; CRP4; DCA; ISI; 2 Promoting Healthy Diets and Nutrition for all; Capacity StrengtheningA4NH; Nutrition, Diets, and Health (NDH); Food and Nutrition PolicyCGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH

    Dietary recommendations for Ethiopians on the basis of priority diet-related diseases and causes of death in Ethiopia: An umbrella review

    No full text
    Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) need to be evidence-based. As part of the development of Ethiopian FBDG, we conducted an umbrella review to develop dietary recommendations. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), deficiencies of vitamin A, zinc, calcium, or folate, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were selected as a priority. Systematic reviews were eligible if they investigated the impact of foods, food groups, diet, or dietary patterns on priority diseases. After a search, 1513 articles were identified in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar published from January 2014 to December 2021. The results showed that 19 out of 164 systematic reviews reported the impact of diet on PEM or micronutrient deficiencies. Daily 30–90 g whole-grain consumption reduces risk of CVD and T2DM. Pulses improve protein status, and consuming 50–150 g/d is associated with a reduced incidence of CVD and T2DM. Nuts are a good source of minerals, and consuming 15–35 g/d improves antioxidant status and is inversely associated with CVD risk. A daily intake of 200–300 mL of milk and dairy foods is a good source of calcium and contributes to bone mineral density. Limiting processed meat intake to <50 g/d reduces CVD risk. Fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamins A and C. CVD and T2DM risks are reduced by consuming 200–300 g of vegetables plus fruits daily. Daily sugar consumption should be below 10% of total energy to lower risk of obesity, CVD, and T2DM. Plant-based fat has favorable nutrient profiles and modest saturated fat content. The association of saturated fatty acids with CVD and T2DM is inconclusive, but intake should be limited because of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising effect. Plant-based diets lower risk of CVD and T2DM but reduce micronutrient bioavailability. The review concludes with 9 key dietary recommendations proposed to be implemented in the Ethiopian FBDG. This review was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42019125490)

    The feasibility of implementing food-based dietary guidelines and food graphics in Ethiopia

    No full text
    This study aimed to test the acceptability, cultural appropriateness, consumers' understanding, and practicality of the Ethiopian food-based dietary guideline's messages, tips, and food graphics. A qualitative study design was applied with focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Four different participant groups were included: 40 consumers, 15 high-level nutrition experts, 30 frontline community health extension workers (HEWs), and 15 agriculture extension workers (AEWs) to incorporate different stakeholder perspectives. Data collection was conducted using 7 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 key informant interviews (KIIs). Collected data were coded and analyzed using QSR International NVivo V.11 software. Most of the study participants were highly interested in implementing the dietary guidelines once these guidelines are officially released. Based on the participants' views, most of the messages align with the current nutrition education materials implemented in the country except the messages about physical activity and alcohol intake. However, participants suggested defining technical terms such as ultra-processing, whole grain, safe and balanced diet in simpler terms for a better understanding. Practicality, affordability, availability, and access to the market were the major barriers reported for adherence to the guidelines. To be more inclusive of cultural and religious beliefs, findings show that the guideline should address fasting and traditional cooking methods. In conclusion, the dietary guidelines were well received by most stakeholders. They are thought to be feasible once feedback on wording, affordability, availability, and access is considered in the messages, tips, and graphic designs.PR2 Promoting Healthy Diets and Nutrition for all; IFPRI3; ISI; CRP4A4NHCGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH

    Development of the Ethiopian Healthy Eating Index (Et-HEI) and evaluation in women of reproductive age

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    Ethiopia announced its first food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) on 15 March 2022. The present study aims to develop and evaluate the Ethiopian Healthy Eating Index (Et-HEI) based on the FBDG. Data were collected from 494 Ethiopian women of reproductive age sampled from households in five different regions. The Et-HEI consists of eleven components, and each component was scored between 0 and 10 points, the total score ranging from 0 to 110, with maximum adherence to the FBDG. The Et-HEI score was evaluated against the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) and the probability of nutrient adequacy. The average Et-HEI score for women of reproductive age was 49 out of 110. Adherence to the recommendations for grains, vegetables, legumes, fat and oils, salt, sugar and alcohol contributed the most to this score. Most women had low scores for fruits, nuts and seeds, and animal-sourced foods, indicating low intake. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient, indicating the reliability of the Et-HEI to assess its diet quality, was 0·53. The low mean Et-HEI score agreed with a low mean score of the MDD-W (3·5 out of 10). Also, low nutrient adequacies confirmed poor adherence to nutrient-dense components of the FBDG. The Et-HEI was not associated with the intake of vitamin B12, vitamin C and calcium in this study population. Women who completed secondary school and above had relatively lower Et-HEI scores. The newly developed Et-HEI is able to estimate nutrient adequacy while also assessing adherence to the Ethiopian FBDG though there is room for improvement

    The DQQ is a Valid Tool to Collect Population-Level Food Group Consumption Data : A Study Among Women in Ethiopia, Vietnam, and Solomon Islands

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    BACKGROUND: The Diet Quality Questionnaire (DQQ) is a rapid dietary assessment tool designed to enable feasible measuring and monitoring of diet quality at population level in the general public. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate validity of the DQQ for collecting population-level food group consumption data required for calculating diet quality indicators by comparing them with a multipass 24-h dietary recall (24hR) as the reference. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected among female participants aged 15-49 y in Ethiopia (n = 488), 18-49 y in Vietnam (n = 200), and 19-69 y in Solomon Islands (n = 65) to compare DQQ and 24hR data in proportional differences in food group consumption prevalence, percentage of participants achieving Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W), percent agreement, percentage misreporting food group consumption, and diet quality scores of Food Group Diversity Score (FGDS), noncommunicable disease (NCD)-Protect, NCD-Risk, and the Global Dietary Recommendation (GDR) score using a nonparametric analysis. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) percentage point difference between DQQ and 24hR in population prevalence of food group consumption was 0.6 (0.7), 2.4 (2.0), and 2.5 (2.7) in Ethiopia, Vietnam, and Solomon Islands, respectively. Percent agreement of food group consumption data ranged from 88.6% (10.1) in Solomon Islands to 96.3% (4.9) in Ethiopia. There was no significant difference between DQQ and 24hR in population prevalence of achieving MDD-W except for Ethiopia (DQQ 6.1 percentage points higher, P < 0.01). Median (25th-75th percentiles) scores of FGDS, NCD-Protect, NCD-Risk, and GDR score were comparable between the tools. CONCLUSIONS: The DQQ is a suitable tool for collecting population-level food group consumption data for estimating diet quality with food group-based indicators such as the MDD-W, FGDS, NCD-Protect, NCD-Risk, and GDR score

    Association between biomarkers of inflammation and total liver vitamin A reserves estimated by 13C-retinol isotope dilution among preschool children in 5 African countries

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    Background: Vitamin A (VA) assessment is important for targeting public health programs. Retinol isotope dilution (RID) is a sensitive method to estimate total body VA stores (TBSs) and total liver reserves (TLRs), but the impact of subclinical inflammation on RID is unclear. Objective: We determined the association between TBSs and TLRs, estimated by RID, and inflammation among preschool children without clinical infection in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, South Africa, and Tanzania. Methods: Five studies (n = 532; 47.9 +/- 8.3 mo; 49.0% male) included 13C-RID and measurement of inflammation markers, CRP, and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Spearman correlations were used to evaluate TBSs and TLRs with inflammation biomarkers. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare TBSs and TLRs by inflammation categories [normal vs. elevated CRP (>5 mg/L) or AGP (>1 g/L)] and inflammation stage [reference, incubation (elevated CRP), early convalescence (elevated CRP and AGP), and late convalescence (elevated AGP)]. Results: Complete data were available for 439 children. Median (Q1, Q3) TLRs ranged from 0.12 (0.07, 0.18) mu mol/g in Ethiopia to 1.10 (0.88, 1.38) mu mol/g in South Africa. Elevated CRP ranged from 4% in Burkina Faso to 42% in Cameroon, and elevated AGP from 20% in Tanzania to 58% in Cameroon. Pooled analysis (excluding Cameroon) showed a negative correlation between TBSs and AGP (rho = -0.131, P = 0.01). Children with elevated AGP had higher probability of having lower TBSs (probability = 0.61, P = 0.002). TBSs differed among infection stages (P = 0.020). Correlations between TLRs and CRP or AGP were not significant. Conclusions: No indication of systematic bias in RID-estimated TLRs was found due to subclinical inflammation among preschool children. The inverse relationship between TBSs and AGP may reflect decreased stores after infection or an effect of inflammation on isotope par-titioning. Further research should investigate potential confounding variables to improve TBS-estimate validity
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