3 research outputs found

    Ion-exchange properties and swelling capacity of leaf cell wall of Arctic plants

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    Ion-exchange (number of functional group) properties and swelling capacity of leaf cell walls of plant species Betula nana, Salix polaris, Dryas octopetala and Cassiope tetragona from Western Spitsbergen Island were investigated. It was found out that cell wall of Arctic plants is cation exchanger which has similar functional groups (amine groups, carboxyl groups and phenolic OH-groups) with cell wall of boreal plants. In all investigated species, the highest percentage in the structure of the cell wall was recorded for the carboxyl groups of hydroxycinnamic acids and phenolic OH-groups, which are part of phenolic compounds. In comparison with species from other climatic zones leaf cell wall of arctic plants has in 2–3 times higher amount of ion exchange groups of all types as well as the higher values of swelling coefficients. It was proposed that the high values of the ion-exchange capacity and swelling coefficient of the cell wall of all studied species contribute to greater water flow system by the apoplast and enhance the metabolic processes in the cell wall of plants at high latitudes

    Cell wall functional activity and metal accumulation of halophytic plant species Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritima on the White Sea littoral zone (NW Russia)

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    The presented study supplements the knowledge on ion-exchange capacity, swelling capacity (elasticity) of the plant cell wall, and the accumulation of heavy metals in halophytic species Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritima in the tidal zone of the White Sea western coast. The littoral soils of the coastal territories are sandy or rocky-sandy, medium and slightly saline with poor content of organic substances, Mn, Zn, Ni, and Pb. Studied soils are considered as uncontaminated by heavy metals because they contain background amounts of Fe and Cu. Sea water is significantly polluted by Fe (3.8 MPC) and Ni (55 MPC), has poor content of Zn and Cu and background level of Pb and Mn. The coastal dominant plant species P. maritima and T. maritima were characterized by intensive metals accumulation which was reflected in the coefficient of biological absorption (CBA) of metal by a whole plant. For P. maritima the following metal accumulation series was obtained: Cu (3.29)> Zn (2.81)> Ni (1.57)> Pb (1.30)> Mn (1.21)> Fe (0.97), and for T. maritima: Ni (3.80)> Fe (2.08)> Cu (1.91)> Zn (1.84)> Pb (1.51)> Mn (1.31). Roots accumulated 50–70% of Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mn of the total metal content in the plant while leaves and stems contained 30–50%. Fe was allocated mainly in the roots (80%). The ion-exchange capacity of the plant cell wall for P. maritima and T. maritima was established as follows correspondingly: 3570–3700 and 2710–3070 μmol g-1 dry cell weight per leaf; 2310–2350 and 1160–1250 μmol g-1 dry cell weight per root

    Ecological and biological features of Triglochin maritima L. in the biotopes of the littoral zone with different degree of flooding on the coast of the White Sea

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    The study of Triglochin maritima L. was carried out on the Pomor (western) coast of the White Sea, in the Republic of Karelia (64°22'81"N, 35°93'14"E). Morphological analysis of aboveground and underground parts of the clones was performed on virginal plants. Anatomical analysis of leaf sheaths of the current year shoots, rhizomes and adventitious roots was carried out. The viability of pollen was assessed by determining the relative share of normally developed and malformed pollen grains. The content of heavy metals was determined in the soil, sea water and plant samples. The study was carried out on a model transect in the littoral zone on three test plots representing the lower littoral; the middle and the upper littoral zones. Adaptation to wave and storm impact was manifested in a well-developed system of underground organs. In the lower littoral, underground part surpasses the aboveground vegetative organs in terms of the mass and the formation of mechanical tissues. This allows the plants to anchor stronger in the substrate. Pollen analysis confirmed the adaptability of T. maritima plants to the conditions of the lower littoral by a high percentage of normal and, consequently, fertile pollen, which ensures sexual reproduction of the species. T. maritima can be considered as a Fe hyperaccumulator as the plant accumulates very high levels of Fe (22–34 g kg-1), especially in the lower and middle littoral zones, both in underground and aboveground organs. The ability of T. maritima plants to actively deposit metals was revealed on the basis of the coefficient of biological absorption of metals and makes it possible to suggest potential possibility of using the species in phytoremediation technologies on coastal territories