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    The use of ASBOs against young people in England and Wales: lessons from Scotland

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    The Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO) is one of the best known measures used to tackle anti-social behaviour. In keeping with the popular conception, the order is frequently used against young people. Of all ASBOs issued in England and Wales up to the end of 2005, roughly 40% were imposed on under-18s. This paper begins with a brief outline of the three principles at the heart of the celebrated Scottish children’s hearings system. With reference to these principles, and to the provisions which govern the use of the order against 12–15 year olds north of the border, the paper then discusses five areas of concern about the use of ASBOs against young people in England and Wales: the readiness to resort to ASBOs; the forum for ASBO applications; the terms of ASBOs; publicising the details of ASBOs; and custodial net-widening. The paper ends by suggesting reforms to the ASBO regime in England and Wales insofar as it is used against young people.<br/

    Evaluation of data obtained from atmospheric laser Doppler velocimeter

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    The Doppler lidar velocimeter produces a variety of kinds of data. Besides the line of sight velocity components, there are the reflected amplitudes and the Doppler widths. Computer graphics software for displaying these data was produced. Different methods of presentation are needed for the various items. A picture was produced as pictures are often the best way to gain understanding. The individual lidar scans form a crosshatch pattern. Thus one-dimensional measurements fit together to form a two-dimensional whole. A pair of velocity measurements at a point combine to form a wind measurement with direction and magnitude. This gives a forest of wind vectors. The goal is to find a recognizable pattern to these trees. Often it is necessary to show only part of the information. That is, show only the wind direction not its magnitude or reduce the wind to streamlines of air flow. In other cases data are reduced to contour plots. Just enough contour lines are included to show the picture described
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