49 research outputs found

    The North Asian Genus <i>Kolhymamnicola</i> Starobogatov and Budnikova 1976 (Gastropoda: Amnicolidae), Its Extended Diagnosis, Distribution, and Taxonomic Relationships

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    The taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the endemic North Asian genus Kolhymamnicola Starobogatov and Budnikova, 1976 (Gastropoda: Amnicolidae) remain unknown. To resolve this, we studied key morpho-anatomical characteristics of Kolhymamnicola snails and performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of COI mtDNA, 16S rRNA, and 18S rRNA genes. In terms of protoconch microsculpture, operculum, radular teeth, and gill complex morphology, Kolhymamnicola snails do not differ significantly from the North American genera Amnicola Gould and Haldeman, 1840 and Taylorconcha Hershler et al., 1994, and the European genus Marstoniopsis van Regteren Altena 1936. The bifid penis found in Kolhymamnicola is similar to that in the genus Marstoniopsis. The female reproductive anatomy has some features shared by Kolhymamnicola and Taylorconcha (absence of bursa copulatrix, single seminal receptacle in rs2â€Č position, and ventral channel). The molecular analysis has revealed Taylorconcha as the closest relative to Kolhymamnicola; the COI-based genetic distance between them amounted to 0.113. We discuss the possible time of divergence of these two genera, as well as of European Marstoniopsis and the Baikal Lake endemic family Baicaliidae. The last common ancestor of these groups was widely distributed in Miocene–Pliocene in the Holarctic waterbodies. Recent Kolhymamnicola snails are distributed in Northern Asia, including lakes of the Baikal rift zone. We rank the Baicaliidae as a family rather than a subfamily of Amnicolidae based on their distinct, unique morpho-anatomical characteristics and highly supported separate position on the molecular tree. The tribe Erhaiini Davis and Kuo, 1985 is elevated to the rank of the family, with 3–4 recent genera included. The family Palaeobaicaliidae Sitnikova et Vinarski fam. nov. is established to embrace the Cretaceous North Asian gastropods conchologically similar to the recent Baicaliidae and Pyrgulidae

    Morphological and Genetic Variability in <i>Radix auricularia</i> (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) of Lake Baikal, Siberia: The Story of an Unfinished Invasion into the Ancient Deepest Lake

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    This article aims to reconstruct the invasion of the ear-shaped pond snail, Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758), to Lake Baikal, East Siberia. This species is widely distributed in the Palaearctic and Northern America, and since the early 20th century has formed abundant and sustained populations in Lake Baikal. The data provided on the morphological and genetic variability of R. auricularia help to better describe and delineate the species. With an integrative approach involving morphological and molecular data, we improved the knowledge of the intraspecific variability of R. auricularia in the most important characteristics used for its determination. Molecular sequences of nuclear spacer fragment ITS-2 and mitochondrial gene fragment cyt–b were obtained from 32 individuals of Radix (including seven outgroup Radix species) collected from various parts of Lake Baikal and adjacent waterbodies and compared with sequences of 32 individuals of R. auricularia from different regions of the Palaearctic as well as with individuals determinated as R. intercisa from Lake Baikal, R. iturupica from the Kurile Islands, R. ussuriensis from the Khabarovsk region, R. narzykulovi from Tajikistan, and R. schubinae from the Amur region. Molecular genetic analyses revealed that all specimens collected from Lake Baikal belong to R. auricularia. There are no genetically distinct groups of snails that would correspond to two morphospecies previously recorded in Lake Baikal (e.g., R. auricularia s. str. and R. intercisa). Variability of the characteristics that are commonly used for species identification (shell morphology, mantle pigmentation, shape and position of the bursa copulatrix, length and position of the bursa duct, length ratio of preputium to penial sheath) were found in individuals analysed with molecular genetics to be broader than recognised in the current literature. Some shells of R. auricularia collected from Lake Baikal resemble shells of another lymnaeid species, R. balthica, and without molecular assessment can be confused with the latter. Geometric morphometric analysis of more than 250 shells revealed no observed hiatus between Baikalian and non-Baikalian R. auricularia. The probable stages and pathways of R. auricularia invasion to Lake Baikal’s ecosystem are outlined and discussed. Factors such as global climate warming and human activity stimulated and facilitated the ongoing dispersal of ear pond snails within Lake Baikal

    Mortgage lending as a mechanism to stimulate investment demand in the context of digitalization

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    Currently, in difficult epidemiological conditions, there are significant changes in all spheres of human life. Also, the negative impact of the coronavirus epidemic (COVID-19) was not spared by such a significant area for humanity as a mortgage. Mortgage activity has undergone significant changes in the context of the pandemic, especially under the influence of negative factors. However, despite the difficult epidemiological conditions, the Government of the Russian Federation proposed supportive measures and provided assistance to citizens who found themselves in a difficult situation. The article analyzes the trend in the development of mortgage lending, determines the dynamics of the volume of housing mortgage lending provided by credit institutions to individuals, reveals the interdependence between the number of loans issued and the mortgage rate, examines the impact of overdue debt on mortgage loans on the efficiency of a credit institution. The article examines the activities of the leader in mortgage lending Sberbank. The authors proposed measures to improve the efficiency of mortgage lending development in the activities of Sberbank

    Phenological shifts of abiotic events, producers and consumers across a continent

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    Ongoing climate change can shift organism phenology in ways that vary depending on species, habitats and climate factors studied. To probe for large-scale patterns in associated phenological change, we use 70,709 observations from six decades of systematic monitoring across the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Among 110 phenological events related to plants, birds, insects, amphibians and fungi, we find a mosaic of change, defying simple predictions of earlier springs, later autumns and stronger changes at higher latitudes and elevations. Site mean temperature emerged as a strong predictor of local phenology, but the magnitude and direction of change varied with trophic level and the relative timing of an event. Beyond temperature-associated variation, we uncover high variation among both sites and years, with some sites being characterized by disproportionately long seasons and others by short ones. Our findings emphasize concerns regarding ecosystem integrity and highlight the difficulty of predicting climate change outcomes. The authors use systematic monitoring across the former USSR to investigate phenological changes across taxa. The long-term mean temperature of a site emerged as a strong predictor of phenological change, with further imprints of trophic level, event timing, site, year and biotic interactions.Peer reviewe

    Amazing Discoveries of Benthic Fauna from the Abyssal Zone of Lake Baikal

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    Lake Baikal is a natural laboratory for the study of species diversity and evolution, as a unique freshwater ecosystem meeting the all of the main criteria of the World Heritage Convention. However, despite many years of research, the true biodiversity of the lake is clearly insufficiently studied, especially that of deep-water benthic sessile organisms. For the first time, plastic waste was raised from depths of 110 to 190 m of Lake Baikal. The aim of this study was to examine the biological community inhabiting the plastic substrate using morphological and molecular genetic analysis. Fragments of plastic packaging materials were densely populated: bryozoans, leeches and their cocoons, capsules of gastropod eggs, and turbellaria cocoons were found. All the data obtained as a result of an analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the standard bar-coding fragment of the mitochondrial genome turned out to be unique. Our results demonstrate the prospects for conducting comprehensive studies of artificial substrates to determine the true biodiversity of benthos in the abyssal zone of Lake Baikal

    Cardiac myosin activation with omecamtiv mecarbil in systolic heart failure

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    BACKGROUND The selective cardiac myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil has been shown to improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Its effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. METHODS We randomly assigned 8256 patients (inpatients and outpatients) with symptomatic chronic heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less to receive omecamtiv mecarbil (using pharmacokinetic-guided doses of 25 mg, 37.5 mg, or 50 mg twice daily) or placebo, in addition to standard heart-failure therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of a first heart-failure event (hospitalization or urgent visit for heart failure) or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS During a median of 21.8 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 1523 of 4120 patients (37.0%) in the omecamtiv mecarbil group and in 1607 of 4112 patients (39.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 0.99; P = 0.03). A total of 808 patients (19.6%) and 798 patients (19.4%), respectively, died from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.11). There was no significant difference between groups in the change from baseline on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score. At week 24, the change from baseline for the median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level was 10% lower in the omecamtiv mecarbil group than in the placebo group; the median cardiac troponin I level was 4 ng per liter higher. The frequency of cardiac ischemic and ventricular arrhythmia events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection, those who received omecamtiv mecarbil had a lower incidence of a composite of a heart-failure event or death from cardiovascular causes than those who received placebo. (Funded by Amgen and others; GALACTIC-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02929329; EudraCT number, 2016 -002299-28.)

    Chronicles of nature calendar, a long-term and large-scale multitaxon database on phenology

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    We present an extensive, large-scale, long-term and multitaxon database on phenological and climatic variation, involving 506,186 observation dates acquired in 471 localities in Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan. The data cover the period 1890-2018, with 96% of the data being from 1960 onwards. The database is rich in plants, birds and climatic events, but also includes insects, amphibians, reptiles and fungi. The database includes multiple events per species, such as the onset days of leaf unfolding and leaf fall for plants, and the days for first spring and last autumn occurrences for birds. The data were acquired using standardized methods by permanent staff of national parks and nature reserves (87% of the data) and members of a phenological observation network (13% of the data). The database is valuable for exploring how species respond in their phenology to climate change. Large-scale analyses of spatial variation in phenological response can help to better predict the consequences of species and community responses to climate change.Peer reviewe

    Differences in spatial versus temporal reaction norms for spring and autumn phenological events

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    For species to stay temporally tuned to their environment, they use cues such as the accumulation of degree-days. The relationships between the timing of a phenological event in a population and its environmental cue can be described by a population-level reaction norm. Variation in reaction norms along environmental gradients may either intensify the environmental effects on timing (cogradient variation) or attenuate the effects (countergradient variation). To resolve spatial and seasonal variation in species' response, we use a unique dataset of 91 taxa and 178 phenological events observed across a network of 472 monitoring sites, spread across the nations of the former Soviet Union. We show that compared to local rates of advancement of phenological events with the advancement of temperature-related cues (i.e., variation within site over years), spatial variation in reaction norms tend to accentuate responses in spring (cogradient variation) and attenuate them in autumn (countergradient variation). As a result, among-population variation in the timing of events is greater in spring and less in autumn than if all populations followed the same reaction norm regardless of location. Despite such signs of local adaptation, overall phenotypic plasticity was not sufficient for phenological events to keep exact pace with their cues-the earlier the year, the more did the timing of the phenological event lag behind the timing of the cue. Overall, these patterns suggest that differences in the spatial versus temporal reaction norms will affect species' response to climate change in opposite ways in spring and autumn

    Omecamtiv mecarbil in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, GALACTIC‐HF: baseline characteristics and comparison with contemporary clinical trials

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    Aims: The safety and efficacy of the novel selective cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is tested in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC‐HF) trial. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of participants in GALACTIC‐HF and how these compare with other contemporary trials. Methods and Results: Adults with established HFrEF, New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA) ≄ II, EF ≀35%, elevated natriuretic peptides and either current hospitalization for HF or history of hospitalization/ emergency department visit for HF within a year were randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil (pharmacokinetic‐guided dosing: 25, 37.5 or 50 mg bid). 8256 patients [male (79%), non‐white (22%), mean age 65 years] were enrolled with a mean EF 27%, ischemic etiology in 54%, NYHA II 53% and III/IV 47%, and median NT‐proBNP 1971 pg/mL. HF therapies at baseline were among the most effectively employed in contemporary HF trials. GALACTIC‐HF randomized patients representative of recent HF registries and trials with substantial numbers of patients also having characteristics understudied in previous trials including more from North America (n = 1386), enrolled as inpatients (n = 2084), systolic blood pressure &lt; 100 mmHg (n = 1127), estimated glomerular filtration rate &lt; 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 528), and treated with sacubitril‐valsartan at baseline (n = 1594). Conclusions: GALACTIC‐HF enrolled a well‐treated, high‐risk population from both inpatient and outpatient settings, which will provide a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this novel therapy, as well as informing its potential future implementation
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