730 research outputs found

    Storage stability of whole and nibbed, conventional and high oleic peanuts (<i>Arachis hypogeae </i>L.)

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    Peanuts are increasingly being used as nibbed ingredients in cereal bars, confectionery and breakfast cereals. However, studies on their oxidative stability in this format are limited. Storage trials to determine the stability to oxidation were carried out on whole and nibbed kernels of conventional (CP) and high oleic (HOP) peanuts, with respect to temperature and modified atmosphere packaging. HOP exhibited the highest oxidative stability, with a lag phase in whole kernels of 12–15 weeks before significant oxidation occurred. HOP also showed higher levels of intrinsic antioxidants, a trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 70 mMol equivalence and radical scavenging percentage (RSP) of 99.8 % at the beginning of storage trials, whereas CP showed values of 40 mMol and 81.2 %, respectively. The intrinsic antioxidants at the beginning of these storage trials were shown to affect the peroxide value (PV), where RSP and TEAC decreased, and PV increased. Therefore, in peanuts the processing format (nibbed or whole) had the highest influence on susceptibility of lipid oxidation, highest to lowest importance: processing format &gt; temperature &gt; atmospheric conditions

    Measurement-induced disturbances and nonclassical correlations of Gaussian states

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    We study quantum correlations beyond entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by means of the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) and its ameliorated version (AMID). In analogy with the recent studies of the Gaussian quantum discord, we define a Gaussian AMID by constraining the optimization to all bi-local Gaussian positive operator valued measurements. We solve the optimization explicitly for relevant families of states, including squeezed thermal states. Remarkably, we find that there is a finite subset of two-mode Gaussian states comprising pure states where non-Gaussian measurements such as photon counting are globally optimal for the AMID and realize a strictly smaller state disturbance compared to the best Gaussian measurements. However, for the majority of two-mode Gaussian states the unoptimized MID provides a loose overestimation of the actual content of quantum correlations, as evidenced by its comparison with Gaussian discord. This feature displays strong similarity with the case of two qubits. Upper and lower bounds for the Gaussian AMID at fixed Gaussian discord are identified. We further present a comparison between Gaussian AMID and Gaussian entanglement of formation, and classify families of two-mode states in terms of their Gaussian AMID, Gaussian discord, and Gaussian entanglement of formation. Our findings provide a further confirmation of the genuinely quantum nature of general Gaussian states, yet they reveal that non-Gaussian measurements can play a crucial role for the optimized extraction and potential exploitation of classical and nonclassical correlations in Gaussian states. © 2011 American Physical Society

    Sepsis biomarkers and diagnostic tools with a focus on machine learning.

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    Over the last years, there have been advances in the use of data-driven techniques to improve the definition, early recognition, subtypes characterisation, prognostication and treatment personalisation of sepsis. Some of those involve the discovery or evaluation of biomarkers or digital signatures of sepsis or sepsis sub-phenotypes. It is hoped that their identification may improve timeliness and accuracy of diagnosis, suggest physiological pathways and therapeutic targets, inform targeted recruitment into clinical trials, and optimise clinical management. Given the complexities of the sepsis response, panels of biomarkers or models combining biomarkers and clinical data are necessary, as well as specific data analysis methods, which broadly fall under the scope of machine learning. This narrative review gives a brief overview of the main machine learning techniques (mainly in the realms of supervised and unsupervised methods) and published applications that have been used to create sepsis diagnostic tools and identify biomarkers

    Phylogenetic inference using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) in the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae in the United Kingdom relative to a European framework

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    The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), an obligatory blood feeding ectoparasite, is primarily associated with laying hens where it is estimated to cause losses of ~€231 million per annum to European farmers. Moderate to high infestation levels result in negative impacts on hen welfare, including increased cannibalism, irritation, feather pecking, restlessness, anaemia and mortality. Acaricides are currently the prevailing method of population control for D. gallinae, although resistance against some classes of acaricide has been widely reported. The development of resistance highlights a growing need for research into alternative control methods, including the development of a suitable and effective vaccine. Understanding the genetic structure of D. gallinae populations can support improved management of acaricide resistance and sustainability of future vaccines, but limited data are currently available. The aim of this study was to characterise D. gallinae isolates from Europe, targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene to gain an insight into population structure and genetic diversity of currently circulating mites. Dermanyssus gallinae isolates were collected from Albania, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Genomic DNA was extracted from individual adult D. gallinae mites and a 681bp fragment of the COI gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of 195 COI sequences confirmed the presence of multiple lineages across Europe with 76 distinct haplotypes split across three main haplogroups and six sub-haplogroups. Importantly there is considerable inter- and intra-country variation across Europe, which could result from the movement of poultry or transfer of contaminated equipment and/or materials and husbandry practices

    SENP1 participates in the dynamic regulation of Elk-1 SUMOylation

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    The modification of proteins with SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) plays an important role in determining their functional properties. Importantly though, SUMOylation is a highly dynamic process enabling transient responses to be elicited. This dynamism is controlled by two competing conjugating and deconjugating activities. The latter activity is mediated by the SENP [SUMO1/sentrin/SMT3 (suppressor of mif two 3 homologue 1)-specific peptidase] family of SUMO-specific proteases. The transcription factor Elk-1 [ETS (E twenty-six)-like 1] undergoes rapid de-SUMOylation following cellular stimulation with growth factors, and this contributes to its conversion from a SUMO-dependent repressor into a potent transcriptional activator. In the present study we demonstrate an important role for SENP1 in the de-SUMOylation of Elk-1, and therefore an integral role in determining the Elk-1-dependent transcriptional programme. Among the SENPs, Elk-1 preferentially forms a complex with SENP1. This preferential binding is reflected by the higher efficiency of SENP1 in promoting Elk-1 transactivation. Moreover, depletion of SENP1 causes a reciprocal effect and reduces the transactivation properties of Elk-1. Partial redundancy of function with SENP2 is revealed by combinatorial knockdown studies. Importantly, depletion of SENP1 also reduces the activation of the Elk-1 target gene c-FOS. Taken together, these results therefore reveal an important role for SENP1 in the regulation of Elk-1-mediated gene expression in response to mitogenic signalling cues