10 research outputs found

    C9orf72-derived arginine-rich poly-dipeptides impede phase modifiers

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    Nuclear import receptors (NIRs) not only transport RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) but also modify phase transitions of RBPs by recognizing nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Toxic arginine-rich poly-dipeptides from C9orf72 interact with NIRs and cause nucleocytoplasmic transport deficit. However, the molecular basis for the toxicity of arginine-rich poly-dipeptides toward NIRs function as phase modifiers of RBPs remains unidentified. Here we show that arginine-rich poly-dipeptides impede the ability of NIRs to modify phase transitions of RBPs. Isothermal titration calorimetry and size-exclusion chromatography revealed that proline:arginine (PR) poly-dipeptides tightly bind karyopherin-β2 (Kapβ2) at 1:1 ratio. The nuclear magnetic resonances of Kapβ2 perturbed by PR poly-dipeptides partially overlapped with those perturbed by the designed NLS peptide, suggesting that PR poly-dipeptides target the NLS binding site of Kapβ2. The findings offer mechanistic insights into how phase transitions of RBPs are disabled in C9orf72-related neurodegeneration

    How does the Royal Family of Tudor rule the PIWI-interacting RNA pathway?

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    PIWI (P-element-induced wimpy testis) proteins are a subset of the Argonaute proteins and are expressed predominantly in the germlines of a variety of organisms, including Drosophila and mammals. PIWI proteins associate specifically with PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small RNAs that are also expressed predominantly in germlines, and silence transposable DNA elements and other genes showing complementarities to the sequences of associated piRNAs. This mechanism helps to maintain the integrity of the genome and the development of gametes. PIWI proteins have been shown recently to contain symmetrical dimethyl arginines (sDMAs), and this modification is mediated by the methyltransferase PRMT5 (also known as Dart5 or Capsuleen). It was then demonstrated that multiple members of the Tudor (Tud) family of proteins, which are necessary for gametogenesis in both flies and mice, associate with PIWI proteins specifically through sDMAs in various but particular combinations. Although Tud domains in Tud family members are known to be sDMA-binding modules, involvement of the Tudor family at the molecular level in the piRNA pathway has only recently come into focus

    Respective Functions of Two Distinct Siwi Complexes Assembled during PIWI-Interacting RNA Biogenesis in Bombyx Germ Cells

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    PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis consists of two sequential steps: primary piRNA processing and the ping-pong cycle that depends on reciprocal Slicer-mediated RNA cleavage by PIWI proteins. However, the molecular functions of the factors involved remain elusive. Here, we show that RNAs cleaved by a Bombyx mori PIWI, Siwi, remain bound to the protein upon cleavage but are released by a DEAD box protein BmVasa. BmVasa copurifies with Siwi but not another PIWI BmAgo3. A lack of BmVasa does not affect primary piRNA processing but abolishes the ping-pong cycle. Siwi also forms a complex with BmSpn-E and BmQin. This complex is physically separable from the Siwi/BmVasa complex. BmSpn-E, unlike BmVasa, is necessary for primary piRNA production. We propose a model for piRNA biogenesis, where the BmSpn-E/BmQin dimer binds Siwi to function in primary piRNA processing, whereas BmVasa, by associating with Siwi, ensures target RNA release upon cleavage to facilitate the ping-pong cycle

    The Sam68 nuclear body is composed of two RNase-sensitive substructures joined by the adaptor HNRNPL

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    The mammalian cell nucleus contains membraneless suborganelles referred to as nuclear bodies (NBs). Some NBs are formed with an architectural RNA (arcRNA) as the structural core. Here, we searched for new NBs that are built on unidentified arcRNAs by screening for ribonuclease (RNase)-sensitive NBs using 32,651 fluorescently tagged human cDNA clones. We identified 32 tagged proteins that required RNA for their localization in distinct nuclear foci. Among them, seven RNA-binding proteins commonly localized in the Sam68 nuclear body (SNB), which was disrupted by RNase treatment. Knockdown of each SNB protein revealed that SNBs are composed of two distinct RNase-sensitive substructures. One substructure is present as a distinct NB, termed the DBC1 body, in certain conditions, and the more dynamic substructure including Sam68 joins to form the intact SNB. HNRNPL acts as the adaptor to combine the two substructures and form the intact SNB through the interaction of two sets of RNA recognition motifs with the putative arcRNAs in the respective substructures

    Prion-like domains in RNA binding proteins are essential for building subnuclear paraspeckles

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    Prion-like domains (PLDs) are low complexity sequences found in RNA binding proteins associated with the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recently, PLDs have been implicated in mediating gene regulation via liquid-phase transitions that drive ribonucleoprotein granule assembly. In this paper, we report many PLDs in proteins associated with paraspeckles, subnuclear bodies that form around long noncoding RNA. We mapped the interactome network of paraspeckle proteins, finding enrichment of PLDs. We show that one protein, RBM14, connects key paraspeckle subcomplexes via interactions mediated by its PLD. We further show that the RBM14 PLD, as well as the PLD of another essential paraspeckle protein, FUS, is required to rescue paraspeckle formation in cells in which their endogenous counterpart has been knocked down. Similar to FUS, the RBM14 PLD also forms hydrogels with amyloid-like properties. These results suggest a role for PLD-mediated liquid-phase transitions in paraspeckle formation, highlighting this nuclear body as an excellent model system for understanding the perturbation of such processes in neurodegeneration

    C9orf72-derived arginine-rich poly-dipeptides impede phase modifiers

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    Nuclear import receptors (NIRs) not only transport RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) but also modify phase transitions of RBPs by recognizing nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Toxic arginine-rich poly-dipeptides from C9orf72 interact with NIRs and cause nucleocytoplasmic transport deficit. However, the molecular basis for the toxicity of arginine-rich poly-dipeptides toward NIRs function as phase modifiers of RBPs remains unidentified. Here we show that arginine-rich poly-dipeptides impede the ability of NIRs to modify phase transitions of RBPs. Isothermal titration calorimetry and size-exclusion chromatography revealed that proline:arginine (PR) poly-dipeptides tightly bind karyopherin-β2 (Kapβ2) at 1:1 ratio. The nuclear magnetic resonances of Kapβ2 perturbed by PR poly-dipeptides partially overlapped with those perturbed by the designed NLS peptide, suggesting that PR poly-dipeptides target the NLS binding site of Kapβ2. The findings offer mechanistic insights into how phase transitions of RBPs are disabled in C9orf72-related neurodegeneration
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