8 research outputs found

    Spectral features of nasals in Standard Latvian

    No full text
    In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant) can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation.Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19ÔÇô39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ╔▓] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(╦É); e(╦É); ├Ž(╦É); ╔Ĺ(╦É); ╔ö(╦É); u(╦É)]. The velar [┼ő]┬áÔÇö the allophone of the phoneme /n/┬áÔÇö was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[┼őks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total.According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [┼ő] and [m; n; ╔▓]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.</p

    Locus equations and the place of articulation for the Latvian sonorants

    No full text
    In the article, the sonorant consonants of Standard Latvian are investigated using locus equations. The aim of the study is to examine whether locus equations can be considered as efficient descriptors of consonantal place of articulation both within the group of sonorants and across different manner classes in Standard Latvian.Two-type sequences were analyzed: (1) the CV part of isolated nonsense CVC syllables, where C is one of the sonorants [m; n; ╔▓; l; ╩Ä; r] and V is one of the vowels [i(╦É); e(╦É); ├Ž(╦É); ╔Ĺ(╦É); ╔ö(╦É); u(╦É)]; (2) the V(╦É)C part of isolated nonsense V(╦É)CV (VCV for [┼ő]) structure utterances, where C is one of the nasals [m; n; ╔▓; ┼ő] and V is one of the vowels [i; e; ├Ž; ╔Ĺ; ╔ö; u]. Each utterance was recorded in three repetitions by every of 10 native Latvian speakers (five males and five females), thus 3420 items were analyzed in total. Statistical analysis of locus equation slopes and y-intercepts both for the sonorants and for the whole consonant inventory of Standard Latvian was performed in order to test the relevance of these indices for discriminating places of articulation across different manner classes.By plotting the data for the whole consonant inventory in slope-by-intercept space it is possible to distinguish between the groups of palatals/dentals/alveolars and labials/velars, while the results of statistical analysis show significant difference among all place categories. According to the results, there are certain coarticulatory mechanisms associated with particular places of constriction for the Latvian consonants that allow linking locus equation data to different place categories, although they are also affected by manner and voicing. Nevertheless, place of articulation as a determinant of coarticulatory patterns overrules these factors when other possible influences are excluded

    The Features of Pronunciation of the Reduced Vowels in the Russian Speech of the Latvians

    No full text
    Darbs ir velt─źts reduc─ôto patska┼ću izrunas ─źpatn─źbu anal─źzei latvie┼íu krieviskaj─ü run─ü. T─ü m─ôr─Ěis ir izp─ôt─źt latvie┼íu spont─üno krievisko runu, lai konstat─ôtu fon─ôtisk─üs interferences ietekm─ô radu┼í─üs novirzes no krievu valodai rakstur─źg─üs reduc─ôto patska┼ću /a/ un /u/ pareizrunas. Autors veic augst─ük min─ôto patska┼ću eksperiment─ülo anal─źzi un ieg┼źtos rezult─ütus sal─ździna ar atbilsto┼ío krievu un latvie┼íu valodas fon─ômu pareizrunu. Darbs sast─üv no div─üm da─╝─üm ÔÇô pirmaj─ü tiek apskat─źti ar p─ôt─źjumu saist─źtie teor─ôtiskie jaut─üjumi, savuk─ürt otr─ü ir velt─źta divu diktoru izrunas anal─źzei. P─ôt─źjums var ieinteres─ôt filologus, kas specializ─ôjas fon─ôtikas un krievu valodas k─ü sve┼ívalodas apm─üc─źbas jaut─üjumos, k─ü ar─ź visus interesentus. Atsl─ôgv─ürdi: fon─ôtisk─ü interference, kvantitat─źv─ü patska┼ću redukcija, kvalitat─źv─ü patska┼ću redukcija, pareizruna.The BachelorÔÇÖs Paper is devoted to the research of native Latvian speakersÔÇÖ pronunciation peculiarities of Russian reduced vowels. The aim of the research is to find out the Latvian speakersÔÇÖ pronunciation peculiarities of Russian reduced vowels in spontaneous speech, caused by the interfering influence of their native language. The author of the Paper undertakes the experimental analysis of pronunciation peculiarities of the vowels /a/ and /o/ after hard consonants in spontaneous speech of the Latvians, as well as compares the gained data with the characteristics of the corresponding Russian and Latvian vowels in the received pronunciation. The Paper consists of the two sections. The first section deals with the theoretical issues related to the research, meanwhile the second presents the research part, in which pronunciation of two speakers is analysed. The research might be of interest to philologists dealing with the phonetics and teaching Russian as a foreign language, as well as to any reader interested in this topic. Keywords: phonetical interference, quantitative reduction, qualitative reduction, received speech

    Lithuanian and Latvian laterals: comparison of acoustic properties

    No full text
    The aim of the paper is to examine how acoustic contrast manifests itself between /l/ and /╩Ä/ in Latvian, as well as /l/ and /l╩▓/ in Lithuanian. For the study, speech recordings of 6 adult informants (3 Lithuanian and 3 Latvian male speakers) have been analysed. Initial and final laterals in closed symmetric [l]V[l] sequences and intervocalic syllable-initial laterals in V[l]V sequences have been examined. During the analysis, the focus is placed mainly on locus equations, as well as changes in formant structure (especially F1 and F2) triggered by position and vocalic context. Acoustic data demonstrates differences in coarticulation effects between Latvian palatal /╩Ä/ and Lithuanian palatalized /l╩▓/. The formant structure of /╩Ä/ and /l╩▓/, unlike the corresponding non-palatal laterals, is more stable and less dependent on the quality of adjacent vowels. Vowel context affects the degree of palatalization, e. g. palatalized [l╩▓] next to [╔¬], [i╦É] and [e╦É] is pronounced ÔÇťsofterÔÇŁ than next to [╔ö╠č ], [o╠č ╦É], [╩Ő╠č ], and [u╠č ╦É]. Latvian /╩Ä/ is characterized by a more stable vowel F2 locus, which indicates higher degree of coarticulatory resistance to vowel effects; the quality of /l╩▓/, on the contrary, depends more on vowel context. The same is true (although to lesser degree) for the Lithuanian /l/. The assumption about the similarity of Latvian non-palatal /l/ and Lithuanian palatalized /l╩▓/ is only partly supported by the recent data. In terms of the degree of coarticulation (indicated by slope values of locus equations), Latvian /l/ is closer to Lithuanian /l╩▓/, while its formant structure, especially low F2, brings it closer to Lithuanian /l/. Keywords: Lithuanian language; Latvian language; laterals; acoustic features; palatalization; formants; locus equations

    Continuing the acoustic investigation of nasals in the contemporary Baltic languages: a comparative study

    No full text
    Straipsnio tyrimo objektas ÔÇô dabartini┼│ balt┼│ kalb┼│ nosiniai sonantai: l┼źpiniai (lie. /m/, /mj / ir la. /m/), dantiniai (lie. /n/, /nj / ir la. /n/) bei palatalinis la. /╔▓/, taip pat abiej┼│ kalb┼│ fonemos /n/ gomurinis alofonas [┼ő], i┼ítartas pozicijoje [ÔÇôk#/ÔÇôg#]. Straipsnyje lyginamos keturios akustin─Śs lietuvi┼│ ir latvi┼│ nosini┼│ sonant┼│ ypatyb─Śs: 1) pirmoji nosin─Ś formant─Ś (N1); 2) pirmosios nosin─Śs formant─Śs da┼żni┼│ juosta (B1); 3) antiformant─Śs (Z1) da┼żni┼│ diapazonas; 4) F2 lokusai. Tiriam─ůj─ů med┼żiag─ů ─»skait─Ś 3 gimtakalbiai lietuviai ir 3 gimtakalbiai latviai vyrai (20ÔÇô40 m. am┼żiaus). Tyrimas atliktas programa Praat, gauti duomenys apdoroti programomis Microsoft Excel ir SPSS. Lietuvi┼│ ir latvi┼│ kalb┼│ sonantai analizuoti prevokalin─Śje CVC pozicijoje atsi┼żvelgiant ─» du kriterijus: 1) artikuliacijos viet─ů; 2) palatalizacij─ů (nepalatalizuotas : palatalizuotas : palatalinis nosinis sonantas). Tyrimo metu nustatyta, kad min─Śtos akustin─Śs nosini┼│ sonant┼│ ypatyb─Śs dabartini┼│ balt┼│ kalb┼│ garsyne yra skirtingo diferencinio svorio: 1) pirmosios nosin─Śs formant─Śs (N1) duomenys atskiria gomurinius alofonus [┼ő, ┼őj ] nuo negomurini┼│ nosini┼│ sonant┼│ [m, mj , n, nj ]; 2) pagal pirmosios nosin─Śs formant─Śs juostos plo─Źio (B1) duomenis statisti┼íkai reik┼ímingai skiriasi lietuvi┼│ kalbos palatalizuoti ir dantiniai nosiniai sonantai nuo nepalatalizuot┼│ l┼źpini┼│ ir gomurini┼│ sonant┼│, taip pat latvi┼│ kalbos l┼źpiniai ir dantiniai sonantai nuo palatalini┼│ ir gomurini┼│ nosini┼│ sonant┼│; 3) pagal antiforman─Źi┼│ (Z1) da┼żnius galima diferencijuoti lietuvi┼│ kalbos l┼źpinius negomurinius sonantus [m, m╩▓, n, n╩▓] nuo atitinkam┼│ gomurini┼│ sonant┼│ [┼ő, ┼ő╩▓]; latvi┼│ kalboje pagal antiformant─Ö galima atskirti skirtingos artikuliacijos nosinius sonantus: l┼źpinis [m] <dantinis [n] <palatalinis [╔▓] <gomurinis [┼ő]; 4) F2 lokusai gali b┼źti laikomi vienu svarbiausi┼│ po┼żymi┼│ diferencijuojant skirtingos palatalizacijos lietuvi┼│ ir latvi┼│ kalb┼│ nosinius sonantus, ta─Źiau jie skiria ne visas dabartini┼│ balt┼│ kalb┼│ nosini┼│ sonant┼│ artikuliacines klases. Tyrimas parod─Ś, kad n─Śra vieno skiriamojo balt┼│ kalb┼│ nosini┼│ sonant┼│ akustinio po┼żymio, tod─Śl nosiniai sonantai turi b┼źti tiriami kompleksi┼íkai. Akustini┼│ ypatybi┼│ diferencin─» reik┼ímingum─ů taip pat pad─Śt┼│ ─»vertinti perceptyviniai (suvokimo) eksperimentai. Rakta┼żod┼żiai: lietuvi┼│ bendrin─Ś kalba; latvi┼│ bendrin─Ś kalba; nosinis sonantas; pirmoji nosin─Ś formant─Ś; pirmosios nosin─Śs formant─Śs juostos plotis; antiformant─Ś; F2 lokusas.In the paper, the nasals of the contemporary Baltic languages have been analyzed: labial (Lith. /m/, /mj / and Lat. /m/), dental (Lith /n/, /nj / and Lat. /n/), palatal (Lat. /╔▓/), as well as [┼ő], the velar allophone of /n/ which occurs before [ÔÇôk/ÔÇôg] in both languages. Previous comparative experimental studies of consonants in Baltic have focused mainly on obstruents (see Urbanavi─Źien─Ś et al., 2019), therefore in 2021 the project ÔÇťSounds of the Contemporary Baltic Languages in the 21st Century: A Comparative Study of the Acoustic and Auditory Properties of SonorantsÔÇŁ (No. S-LIP-21-7, funded by the Research Council of Lithuania) was launched at the Lithuanian Language Institute. Its goal is to conduct a comprehensive comparative study of Baltic sonorants in various positions. In the paper, four acoustic properties of Lithuanian and Latvian nasals have been analyzed: 1) the first nasal formant (N1); 2) the bandwidth of the first nasal formant (B1); 3) the frequency range of the antiformant (Z1); 4) F2 loci. The study material included three Lithuanian and three Latvian native speakers (men aged 21ÔÇô42). The study was conducted using Praat, Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. Lithuanian and Latvian sonorants were analyzed in a prevocalic position in CVC sequences taking into account two criteria: 1) the place of articulation; 2) palatalization (non-palatalized vs. palatalized vs. palatal nasal). According to the results, the investigated acoustic properties of nasals in Baltic have different relevance when distinguishing between different places of articulation: 1. The frequency of the first nasal formant (N1) is relevant for distinguishing between the velar allophones [┼ő, ┼ő╩▓] and the rest of the nasals in both languages: [m, mj , n, nj , ╔▓] <[┼ő, ┼őj ]. The differences between the respective acoustic properties of non-velar nasals are small. 2. There is a statistically significant difference in B1 values of Lithuanian dental/ palatalized and non-palatalized labial/velar nasals, as well as Latvian labial/dental and palatal/velar nasals. 3. According to the frequencies of antiformants (Z1), it is possible to distinguish between Lithuanian velar and non-velar nasals ÔÇô Z1 values of velar nasals are usually higher: [m, mj , n, nj ] <[┼ő, ┼őj ]. In Latvian, Z1 intervals of [n, ╔▓, ┼ő] only slightly overlap: [m] <[n] <[╔▓] <[┼ő]. The highest Z1 values of Lithuanian palatalized nasals [m╩▓], [n╩▓] are higher than those of the corresponding non-palatalized nasals, but no clear divergence has been observed. 4. F2 loci allow to distinguish between palatal/dental and labial/velar nasals. It should be noted that the F2 loci of Lithuanian palatalized and Latvian palatal nasals are higher than those of non-palatalized consonants; also the F2 locus of the Latvian palatal nasal is higher than that of Lithuanian palatalized nasals. However, not all the nasal places of articulation can be differentiated by F2 loci, so it is necessary to consider other acoustic features (N1, B1, Z1) as well. This study has shown that there is no single absolute acoustic feature that could be used to distinguish between all the nasals in the Baltic languages ÔÇô nasals must be studied in a comprehensive manner evaluating various parameters. Additional information about nasals can be provided by perceptual experiments that have not yet been performed with Lithuanian sonorants. Keywords: Standard Lithuanian; Standard Latvian; nasals; first nasal formant; bandwidth of the first nasal formant; antiformant; F2 locus

    Lithuanian and latvian trills: an acoustic and statistical study of formant structure

    No full text
    Straipsnyje pristatomas dabartini┼│ balt┼│ kalb┼│ virpam┼│j┼│ sonant┼│ - lie. [r], [r1] ir la. [r] - forman─Źi┼│ tyrimas, kuriuo siekiama palyginti prevokalin─Śje (VR), intervokalin─Śje (VV) ir postvokalin─Śje (RV) pozicijose i┼ítart┼│ sonant┼│ F1, F2, F3 ir F4 formantes, i┼ítirti j┼│ kitim─ů skirting┼│ balsi┼│ kontekste, i┼íry┼íkinti [r] ir [r1] forman─Źi┼│ skirtumus lietuvi┼│ ir latvi┼│ kalbose bei nustatyti t┼│ skirtum┼│ statistin─» reik┼ímingum─ů. Tyrimas rodo, kad pagal apibendrintas pirm┼│j┼│ dviej┼│ forman─Źi┼│ reik┼ímes la. [r] u┼żima tarpin─Ö pad─Śt─» tarp nepalatalizuoto lie. [r] ir palatalizuoto lie. [r]. Pozicija skiemenyje statisti┼íkai reik┼íming─ů ─»tak─ů daro lietuvi┼│ kalbos virpam┼│j┼│ sonant┼│ pirmajai formantei, o latvi┼│ kalboje - visoms keturioms formant─Śms. Nustatyta, kad gretim┼│ balsi┼│ kontekstas dabartini┼│ balt┼│ kalb┼│ virpam┼│j┼│ sonant┼│ formant─Śms daro pana┼íi─ů ─»tak─ů: pirmoji formant─Ś susijusi su greta esan─Źio balsio pakilimu, o antroji ir tolesn─Śs formant─Śs priklauso nuo gretimo balsio eil─Śs. Esminiai ┼żod┼żiai: balt┼│ kalbos, virpamasis sonantas, formant─Śs, statistinis reik┼ímingumas, pozicija skiemenyje, veliarizacija, palatalizacija.The paper deals with the formant structure of trills in the contemporary Baltic languages ÔÇô Lith. [r], [r╩▓] and Lat. [r]. The aim of the paper is to compare the formant structure of trills (F1, F2, F3 and F4) in prevocalic (VR), intervocalic (VV) and postvocalic (RV) positions and its variation in the context of different vowels, to highlight the trends of formant dynamics in Lithuanian and Latvian and to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The study shows that according to the average values of the first two formants, Lat. [r] occupies an intermediate position between non-palatalized Lith. [r] and palatalized Lith. [r╩▓]. Syllable position has a statistically significant influence on the first formant of trills in Lithuanian and on all four formants in Latvian. According to the results, the context of adjacent vowels has a similar influence on the formants of trills in both languages: the first formant is related to the height of the adjacent vowel, and the second and subsequent formants depend on the backness of the adjacent vowel. Keywords: Baltic languages, trills, formants, statistical significance, syllable position, velarization, palatalization

    Latvie┼íu /v/ un /╩Ł/: da┼ż─üdu realiz─üciju akustiskais p─ôt─źjums

    No full text
    Latvian /v/ and /╩Ł/: acoustic study of different realizationsThe goal of the current study is to register the distribution of different realizations of Latvian consonant phonemes /v/ and /╩Ł/ in speech material consisting of symmetric CVC units in carrier phrases. For the acoustic analysis, three acoustic characteristics are used: spectral shape and relative intensity of the consonants in question, as well as relative duration of the formant transitions of context vowels.According to the results, fricative is the dominant allophone of /v/ both in prevocalic and postvocalic position, while for /╩Ł/, it is fricative in the prevocalic position and vowel or approximant in the postvocalic position. Fricatives generally have higher spectral peak frequencies and larger frequency range in comparison with 314 approximants. Relative intensity values decrease from vowel to approximant and to fricative, and fricatives have the most variable relative intensity values. There are similar tendencies in the relative formant transition length for both /v/ and /╩Ł/ ÔÇô it is shorter for fricatives than for approximants and vowels.</p
    corecore