411 research outputs found

    Development of white matter microstructure and executive functions during childhood and adolescence: a review of diffusion MRI studies

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    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides indirect measures of white matter microstructure that can be used to make inferences about structural connectivity within the brain. Over the last decade, a growing literature of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have documented relationships between dMRI indices and cognitive development. In this review, we provide a brief overview of dMRI methods and how they can be used to study white matter and connectivity and review the extant literature examining the links between dMRI indices and executive functions during development. We explore the links between white matter microstructure and specific executive functions: inhibition, working memory and cognitive shifting, as well as performance on complex executive function tasks. Concordance in findings across studies are highlighted, and potential explanations for discrepancies between results, together with challenges with using dMRI in child and adolescent populations, are discussed. Finally, we explore future directions that are necessary to better understand the links between child and adolescent development of structural connectivity of the brain and executive functions

    ”See my needs and understand who I am”

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    Bacheloroppgave i sykepleie, 2013Innledning: I følge Demensplan 2015 er det rundt 66 000 mennesker med demens i Norge i dag og forekomsten er stigende. Dette kommer som en følge av høyere levealder og økende antall eldre i befolkningen. Dersom tendensen fortsetter vil det i år 2040 være om lag en fordobling av antall personer med demens, og dette vil omtrent tilsvare 135 000 (Helse- og Omsorgsdepartementet, 2007). Utfordrende atferd har høy forekomst blant personer med demenslidelser, og da spesielt personer med frontallappsdemens. Resultatene og prosenttallene fra ulike studier om dette spriker på grunn av ulike definisjoner av hva utfordrende atferd er, og vi opererer dermed ikke med et bestemt tall i forhold til forekomsten. Studier har vist at utfordrende atferd er assosiert med høyt stressnivå og utbrenthet blant helsepersonell. Dette kan videre føre til at helsepersonell distanserer seg til denne pasientgruppen og kvaliteten på omsorgen som utøves synker (Egan et al., 2007). Problemstilling: Ut i fra temaet om demens og utfordrende atferd, har vi kommet fram til følgende problemstilling: Hvordan kan sykepleieren forebygge utfordrende atferd hos personer med demens

    Adolescent brain development

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    Adolescence starts with puberty and ends when individuals attain an independent role in society. Cognitive neuroscience research in the last two decades has improved our understanding of adolescent brain development. The evidence indicates a prolonged structural maturation of grey matter and white matter tracts supporting higher cognitive functions such as cognitive control and social cognition. These changes are associated with a greater strengthening and separation of brain networks, both in terms of structure and function, as well as improved cognitive skills. Adolescent-specific sub-cortical reactivity to emotions and rewards, contrasted with their developing self-control skills, are thought to account for their greater sensitivity to the socio-affective context. The present review examines these findings and their implications for training interventions and education