407 research outputs found

    Growth Transformation of B Cells by Epstein-Barr Virus Requires IMPDH2 Induction and Nucleolar Hypertrophy

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    ABSTRACT The in vitro growth transformation of primary B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the initial step in the development of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). We performed electron microscopic analysis and immunostaining of primary B cells infected with wild-type EBV. Interestingly, the nucleolar size was increased by two days after infection. A recent study found that nucleolar hypertrophy, which is caused by the induction of the IMPDH2 gene, is required for the efficient promotion of growth in cancers. In the present study, RNA-seq revealed that the IMPDH2 gene was significantly induced by EBV and that its level peaked at day 2. Even without EBV infection, the activation of primary B cells by the CD40 ligand and interleukin-4 increased IMPDH2 expression and nucleolar hypertrophy. Using EBNA2 or LMP1 knockout viruses, we found that EBNA2 and MYC, but not LMP1, induced the IMPDH2 gene during primary infections. IMPDH2 inhibition by mycophenolic acid (MPA) blocked the growth transformation of primary B cells by EBV, leading to smaller nucleoli, nuclei, and cells. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), which is a prodrug of MPA that is approved for use as an immunosuppressant, was tested in a mouse xenograft model. Oral MMF significantly improved the survival of mice and reduced splenomegaly. Taken together, these results indicate that EBV induces IMPDH2 expression through EBNA2-dependent and MYC-dependent mechanisms, leading to the hypertrophy of the nucleoli, nuclei, and cells as well as efficient cell proliferation. Our results provide basic evidence that IMPDH2 induction and nucleolar enlargement are crucial for B cell transformation by EBV. In addition, the use of MMF suppresses PTLD. IMPORTANCE EBV infections cause nucleolar enlargement via the induction of IMPDH2, which are essential for B cell growth transformation by EBV. Although the significance of IMPDH2 induction and nuclear hypertrophy in the tumorigenesis of glioblastoma has been reported, EBV infection brings about the change quickly by using its transcriptional cofactor, EBNA2, and MYC. Moreover, we present here, for the novel, basic evidence that an IMPDH2 inhibitor, namely, MPA or MMF, can be used for EBV-positive posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)

    Direct infiltration of clonal plasma cells causes renal insufficiency in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

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    Abstract Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a benign but precancerous condition that can progress to multiple myeloma. Patients with MGUS are typically monitored closely for signs of disease progression, but in some cases, they may also develop renal insufficiency, a condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS). In MGRS, M‐protein secreted by a nonmalignant or premalignant cell clone triggers renal damage by definition. Herein, we report a case of a 66‐year‐old Asian male with MGUS complicated by renal insufficiency. A kidney biopsy showed no evidence of renal injury mediated by M‐protein; instead, the direct infiltration of clonal cells into renal tissues was observed. Although five similar cases have been previously reported, our case is unique in that the involvement of clonal cells was directly confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our findings suggest the need to consider a novel disease concept, as this phenomenon appears to be reproduced

    Dysfunctional Pro1 leads to female sterility in rice blast fungi

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    Summary: Although sexual reproduction is widespread in eukaryotes, some fungal species can only reproduce asexually. In the rice blast fungus Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) oryzae, several isolates from the region of origin retain mating ability, but most isolates are female sterile. Therefore, female fertility may have been lost during its spread from the origin. Here, we show that functional mutations of Pro1, a global transcriptional regulator of mating-related genes in filamentous fungi, is one cause of loss of female fertility in this fungus. We identified the mutation of Pro1 by backcrossing analysis between female-fertile and female-sterile isolates. The dysfunctional Pro1 did not affect the infection processes but conidial release was increased. Furthermore, various mutations in Pro1 were detected in geographically distant P. oryzae, including pandemic isolates of wheat blast fungus. These results provide the first evidence that loss of female fertility may be advantageous to the life cycle of some plant pathogenic fungi

    Observation of Terahertz Spin Hall Conductivity Spectrum in GaAs with Optical Spin Injection

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    We report the first observation of the spin Hall conductivity spectrum in GaAs at room temperature. After the optical injection of spin-polarized carriers, polarization rotation of a terahertz pulse is observed as a manifestation of the inverse spin Hall effect. The spectrum for the spin Hall conductivity of electrons exhibits an excellent agreement with microscopic theories only using known parameters. The results clearly demonstrate that, unlike in the DC regime, the intrinsic Berry-curvature mechanism is dominant in terahertz frequency, enabling high-speed less-dissipative charge-spin current conversion.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figure

    Early Tumor Shrinkage as a Predictor of Favorable Treatment Outcomes in Patients With Extensive-Stage SCLC Who Received Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 Inhibitor Plus Platinum-Etoposide Chemotherapy: A Prospective Observational Study

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    Introduction: In recent years, programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor plus platinum-etoposide chemotherapy was found to have favorable clinical outcomes in patients with extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC). The usefulness of early tumor shrinkage (ETS) has been reported in various types of cancers. Nevertheless, there have been few reports evaluating ETS in ES-SCLC. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the role of ETS in the clinical outcomes of patients with ES-SCLC receiving chemoimmunotherapy. Methods: We prospectively identified 46 patients with ES-SCLC who received PD-L1 inhibitor plus platinum-etoposide chemotherapy at 10 institutions in Japan between September 2019 and October 2021. Of them, 35 patients were selected for analyses. Results: The responders (progression-free survival [PFS] ≥ 6.0 mo) had significantly greater tumor shrinkage at the first evaluation than the nonresponders (PFS < 6.0 mo) (65.0% versus 53.7%, p = 0.03). We defined the cutoff value for ETS as a 57% change from the baseline on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic results to determine the optimal tumor shrinkage rate at the first evaluation for identifying responders. The patients with ES-SCLC who achieved ETS had longer PFS and overall survival than those who did not achieve ETS (5.6 versus 4.0 mo, log-rank test p = 0.001 and 15.0 versus 8.3 mo, log-rank test p = 0.02). In the multivariate analyses, ETS was significantly associated with PFS and overall survival (hazard ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.12–0.63, p = 0.002 and hazard ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.13–0.85, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our prospective observational study indicated that ETS was related to favorable clinical outcomes for patients with ES-SCLC receiving PD-L1 inhibitor plus platinum-etoposide chemotherapy

    Social aspects of collision avoidance: A detailed analysis of two-person groups and individual pedestrians

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    Pedestrian groups are commonly found in crowds but research on their social aspects is comparatively lacking. To fill that void in literature, we study the dynamics of collision avoidance between pedestrian groups (in particular dyads) and individual pedestrians in an ecological environment, focusing in particular on (i) how such avoidance depends on the group's social relation (e.g. colleagues, couples, friends or families) and (ii) its intensity of social interaction (indicated by conversation, gaze exchange, gestures etc). By analyzing relative collision avoidance in the ``center of mass'' frame, we were able to quantify how much groups and individuals avoid each other with respect to the aforementioned properties of the group. A mathematical representation using a potential energy function is proposed to model avoidance and it is shown to provide a fair approximation to the empirical observations. We also studied the probability that the individuals disrupt the group by ``passing through it'' (termed as intrusion). We analyzed the dependence of the parameters of the avoidance model and of the probability of intrusion on groups' social relation and intensity of interaction. We confirmed that the stronger social bonding or interaction intensity is, the more prominent collision avoidance turns out. We also confirmed that the probability of intrusion is a decreasing function of interaction intensity and strength of social bonding. Our results suggest that such variability should be accounted for in models and crowd management in general. Namely, public spaces with strongly bonded groups (e.g. a family-oriented amusement park) may require a different approach compared to public spaces with loosely bonded groups (e.g. a business-oriented trade fair).Comment: 25 pages, 15 figures, 3 table

    Empagliflozin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Background The effects of empagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease who are at risk for disease progression are not well understood. The EMPA-KIDNEY trial was designed to assess the effects of treatment with empagliflozin in a broad range of such patients. Methods We enrolled patients with chronic kidney disease who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 20 but less than 45 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area, or who had an eGFR of at least 45 but less than 90 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of at least 200. Patients were randomly assigned to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or matching placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of progression of kidney disease (defined as end-stage kidney disease, a sustained decrease in eGFR to &lt; 10 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2), a sustained decrease in eGFR of &amp; GE;40% from baseline, or death from renal causes) or death from cardiovascular causes. Results A total of 6609 patients underwent randomization. During a median of 2.0 years of follow-up, progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 432 of 3304 patients (13.1%) in the empagliflozin group and in 558 of 3305 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.82; P &lt; 0.001). Results were consistent among patients with or without diabetes and across subgroups defined according to eGFR ranges. The rate of hospitalization from any cause was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.95; P=0.003), but there were no significant between-group differences with respect to the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes (which occurred in 4.0% in the empagliflozin group and 4.6% in the placebo group) or death from any cause (in 4.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The rates of serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions Among a wide range of patients with chronic kidney disease who were at risk for disease progression, empagliflozin therapy led to a lower risk of progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes than placebo