2,699 research outputs found

    Electron microscopy observations of the diversity of Ryugu organic matter and its relationship to minerals at the micro-to-nanoscale

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    International audienceTransmission electron microscopy analyses of Hayabusa2 samples show that Ryugu organic matter exhibits a range of morphologies, elemental compositions, and carbon functional chemistries consistent with those of carbonaceous chondrites that have experienced low-temperature aqueous alteration. Both nanoglobules and diffuse organic matter are abundant. Non-globular organic particles are also present, and including some that contain nanodiamond clusters. Diffuse organic matter is finely distributed in and around phyllosilicates, forms coatings on other minerals, and is also preserved in vesicles in secondary minerals such as carbonate and pyrrhotite. The average elemental compositions determined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy of extracted, demineralized insoluble organic matter samples A0107 and C0106 are C100N3O9S1 and C100N3O7S1, respectively, with the difference in O/C slightly outside the difference in the standard error of the mean. The functional chemistry of the nanoglobules varies from mostly aromatic C=C to mixtures of aromatic C=C, ketone C=O, aliphatic (CHn), and carboxyl (COOH) groups. Diffuse organic matter associated with phyllosilicates has variable aromatic C, ketone and carboxyl groups, and some localized aliphatics, but is dominated by molecular carbonate (CO3) absorption, comparable to prior observations of clay-bound organic matter in CI meteorites

    On the Class Groups of Certain Real Cyclic Fields of 2-power Degree

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    Let e ‚Č• 2 be a fixed integer, and let p = 2e+1q + 1 be an odd prime number with 2 ‚ą§ q. For 0 ‚ȧ n ‚ȧ e, let kn be the subfield of the pth cyclotomic field Q(ő∂p) of degree 2n. For L0 = Q(‚ąö2) or Q(‚ąö2‚Ąď) with an odd prime number ‚Ąď, we put Ln = L0kn. For each 0 ‚ȧ n ‚ȧ e ‚ąí 1, we denote by Fn the quadratic subextension of the (2, 2)-extension Ln+1/kn with Fn ‚Ȇ Ln, kn+1. It is a real cyclic field of degree 2n+1. We study the Galois module structure of the 2-parts of the narrow and the ordinary class groups of Fn. This generalizes a classical result of R√©dei and Reichardt for the case n = 0

    Additional file 1 of Novel subgroups of obesity and their association with outcomes: a data-driven cluster analysis

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    Additional file 1: Supplementary Table 1A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 1. Supplementary Table 1B. Drug codes for Cluster 1. Supplementary Table 1C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 1. Supplementary Table 2A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 2. Supplementary Table 2B. Drug codes for Cluster 2. Supplementary Table 2C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 2. Supplementary Table 3A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 3. Supplementary Table 3B. Drug codes for Cluster 3. Supplementary Table 3C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 3. Supplementary Table 4A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 4. Supplementary Table 4B. Drug codes for Cluster 4. Supplementary Table 4C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 4. Supplementary Table 5A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 5. Supplementary Table 5B. Drug codes for Cluster 5. Supplementary Table 5C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 5. Supplementary Table 6A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 6. Supplementary Table 6B. Drug codes for Cluster 6. Supplementary Table 6C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 6. Supplementary Table 7A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 7. Supplementary Table 7B. Drug codes for Cluster 7. Supplementary Table 7C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 7. Supplementary Table 8. ICD-10, drug, and medical procedure codes indicating retinopathy in Cluster 2. Supplementary Table 9A. ICD-10 codes indicating ocular diseases in Clusters 3 and 4. Supplementary Table 9B. Drug codes indicating ocular diseases in Clusters 3 and 4. Supplementary Table 9C. Medical procedure codes indicating ocular diseases in Clusters 3 and 4. Supplementary Fig. 1. Flowchart of the study. Supplementary Fig. 2. Elbow-Plot for K-means clustering Supplementary Fig. 3. Association between BMI and the proportion of the individuals with MHO. Supplementary Fig. 4. Health care fee of each cluster. Supplementary Fig. 5. UMAP plots of all individuals with BMI 30-35. Supplementary Data 1. Python Code for UMAP Reduction and K-means Clustering. Supplementary Data 2. Hierarchical Clustering

    Double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients aged 60 years and older

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    Background: This study aimed to examine the clinical outcomes of double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in patients aged ‚Č•60 years. Methods: Anatomical DB-ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendon autografts was performed in 13 patients aged ‚Č•60 years at our institution between June 2012 and May 2018. The patients included seven men and six women, and the mean age at surgery was 65.0 years (range, 60‚Äď73 years). The mean time from injury to surgery was 80.5 months (range, 1‚Äď480 months), and the mean follow-up time was 26.2 months (range, 24‚Äď42 months). All patients were assessed based on physical examination findings, clinical scores, Kellgren‚ÄďLawrence grades preoperatively and at the final postoperative follow-up, intraoperative meniscal or chondral lesions, and perioperative complications. Status of returning to sports for all patients was assessed at the final follow-up. Results: The mean side-to-side differences by arthrometer improved from 4.3¬†mm (range, 2‚Äď8¬†mm) to 0.9¬†mm (range, 0‚Äď2¬†mm), and the positive pivot-shift test decreased from 100% to 8%. The mean extensor muscle strength was 93.3% (range, 74‚Äď116%) postoperatively. The mean Lysholm score improved from 71.1 (range, 27-85) to 95.2 (range, 89-100). Ten of the 13 patients (77%) returned to their pre-injury level of sports performance, and one patient (8%) returned to sports with less intensity. Intraoperatively, meniscal tears were observed in 10 patients (77%), and chondral lesions¬†>grade 2 were observed in 11 (85%). One patient developed perioperative complications. At the final follow-up, the Kellgren‚ÄďLawrence grade worsened in only one patient. No re-injury or infection was observed, and revision surgery was not required for any patients. Conclusions: Anatomical DB-ACL reconstruction could provide satisfactory clinical outcomes and knee function restoration in patients aged ‚Č•60 years. Level of evidence: A retrospective study, case series (IV)

    Supplementalmaterials_SEMA2_DI.pdf

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    This file "Supplementalmaterials_SEMA2_DI" is a supplemental file for "Improvement of ő≤-Cell Function After Switching From DPP-4 Inhibitors to Oral Semaglutide: SWITCH-SEMA2 Post-Hoc Analysis".</p

    Clinical Impacts of Interventions for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Recently, physical activity has increasingly become the focus in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) because it is a strong predictor of COPD-related mortality. In addition, sedentary behavior, which is included as a category of physical inactivity including such behaviors as sitting or lying down, has an independent clinical impact on COPD patients. The present review examines clinical data related to physical activity, focusing on the definition, associated factors, beneficial effects, and biological mechanisms in patients with COPD and with respect to human health regardless of COPD. The data related to how sedentary behavior is associated with human health and COPD outcomes are also examined. Lastly, possible interventions to improve physical activity or sedentary behavior, such as bronchodilators and pulmonary rehabilitation with behavior modification, to ameliorate the pathophysiology of COPD patients are described. A better understanding of the clinical impact of physical activity or sedentary behavior may lead to the planning of a future intervention study to establish high-level evidence

    Safety of early pelvic drain removal in colorectal surgery based on drainage quantity

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    Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the association between the drainage quantity of pelvic drains and postoperative complications in colorectal surgery. Materials and methods This retrospective single-center study enrolled 122 colorectal surgery patients between January 2017 and December 2020. After restorative proctectomy or proctocolectomy with gastrointestinal anastomosis, a continuous, low-pressure suction pelvic drain was placed and its contents measured. Removal ensued following the absence of turbidity and a drainage quantity of‚ÄȂȧ‚ÄČ150¬†mL/day. Results Seventy-five patients (61.5%) and 47 patients (38.5%) underwent restorative proctectomy and proctocolectomy, respectively. Drainage quantity changes were observed on postoperative day (POD) 3, regardless of the surgical procedure or postoperative complications. The median (interquartile range) number of PODs before drain removal and organ-space surgical site infection (SSI) diagnosis were 3 (3‚Äí5) and 7 (5‚Äí8), respectively. Twenty-one patients developed organ-space SSIs. Drains were left in place in two patients after POD 3 owing to large drainage quantities. Drainage quality changes enabled diagnosis in two patients (1.6%). Four patients responded to therapeutic drains (3.3%). Conclusions The drainage quantity of negative-pressure closed suction drains diminishes shortly after surgery, regardless of the postoperative course. It is not an effective diagnostic or therapeutic drain for organ-space SSI. This supports early drain removal based on drainage quantity changes in actual clinical practice. Trial registration The study protocol was retrospectively registered and carried out per the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Hiroshima University Institutional Review Board (approval number: E-2559)

    A case report of acute cardiac tamponade creation in a macaque

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    Although acute cardiac tamponade is one of the major problems in clinical practice, a suitable animal model is still lacking. We tried to create acute cardiac tamponade in macaques by echo-guided catheter manipulation. A 13-year-old male macaque was anesthetized, and a long sheath was inserted into the left ventricle via the left carotid artery under the guidance of transthoracic echocardiography. The sheath was then inserted into the orifice of the left coronary artery to perforate the proximal site of the left anterior descending branch. A cardiac tamponade was successfully created. Injection of diluted contrast agent into the pericardial space via a catheter made it possible to clearly distinguish between the hemopericardium and the surrounding tissues on postmortem computed tomography. This procedure did not need an X-ray imaging system during catheterization. Our present model would help us examine the intrathoracic organs in the presence of acute cardiac tamponade

    Rationale and design of an investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effects of finerenone on vascular stiffness and cardiorenal biomarkers in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (FIVE-STAR)

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    Abstract Background The overactivation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) plays a key pathological role in the progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases by promoting pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic signaling. Recently, it has been found that finerenone, a novel nonsteroidal selective MR antagonist, can robustly improve cardiorenal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a wide spectrum of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the mechanisms underlying the cardiorenal benefits of finerenone are poorly understood. Further, whether the clinical benefits are mediated by an improvement in vascular stiffness is not confirmed. Therefore, the current study aims to evaluate the effects of finerenone on vascular stiffness as assessed using cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) and relevant cardiorenal biomarkers in patients with T2D and CKD. Methods The Effects of Finerenone on Vascular Stiffness and Cardiorenal Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease (FIVE-STAR) is an ongoing, investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial in Japan. Its target sample size is 100 subjects. Recruitment will be performed from September 2023 to July 2024. After obtaining informed consent, eligible participants with T2D and CKD (25¬†mL/min/1.73¬†m2‚ÄȂȧ‚ÄČestimated glomerular filtration ratio [eGFR]‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ90¬†mL/min/1.73¬†m2 and 30¬†mg/g Cr‚ÄȂȧ‚ÄČurinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR]‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ3500 mg/g Cr) will be equally randomized to receive 24-week treatment with either finerenone (starting dose at 10 mg once daily in participants with a baseline eGFR‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ60¬†mL/min/1.73¬†m2 or at 20 mg once daily in those with a baseline eGFR‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČ60 mL/min/1.73¬†m2) or dose-matched placebo. The primary endpoint is the change from baseline in CAVI at 24 weeks. The secondary endpoints are changes from baseline in UACR at 12 and 24 weeks and relevant serum and urinary biomarkers at 24 weeks. As an exploratory endpoint, proteomic analysis using the Olink¬ģ Target 96 panels will be also performed. Discussion FIVE-STAR is the first trial evaluating the therapeutic impact of finerenone on vascular stiffness and relevant cardiorenal biomarkers in patients with T2D and CKD. This study will provide mechanistic insights on the clinical benefits of finerenone based on recent cardiovascular and renal outcome trials. Trial registration Unique Trial Number, NCT05887817 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05887817 ) and jRCTs021230011 ( https://jrct.niph.go.jp/latest-detail/jRCTs021230011 )

    Water-soluble protein from walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by attenuating TLR4‚ÄďMyD88 expression in macrophages

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    Water-soluble protein (WSP) from fish meat is abundant in the waste effluent generated via the surimi manufacturing process. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of fish WSP using primary macrophages (Mő¶) and animal ingestion. Mő¶ were treated with digested-WSP (d-WSP, 500¬†¬Ķg/mL) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. For the ingestion study, male ICR mice (5¬†weeks old) were fed 4% WSP for 14¬†days following LPS administration (4¬†mg/kg body weight). d-WSP decreased the expression of Tlr4, an LPS receptor. Additionally, d-WSP significantly suppressed the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, phagocytic ability, and Myd88 and Il1b expressions of LPS-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, the ingestion of 4% WSP attenuated not only LPS-induced IL-1ő≤ secretion in the blood but also Myd88 and Il1b expressions in the liver. Thus, fish WSP decreases the expressions of the genes involved in the TLR4‚ÄďMyD88 pathway in Mő¶ and the liver, thereby suppressing inflammation
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