230,158 research outputs found

    Carrier States and Ferromagnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

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    Applying the dynamical coherent potential approximation to a simple model, we have systematically studied the carrier states in A1‚ąíxA_{1-x}MnxB_xB-type diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS's). The model calculation was performed for three typical cases of DMS's: The cases with strong and moderate exchange interactions in the absence of nonmagnetic potentials, and the case with strong attractive nonmagnetic potentials in addition to moderate exchange interaction. When the exchange interaction is sufficiently strong, magnetic impurity bands split from the host band. Carriers in the magnetic impurity band mainly stay at magnetic sites, and coupling between the carrier spin and the localized spin is very strong. The hopping of the carriers among the magnetic sites causes ferromagnetism through a {\it double-exchange (DE)-like} mechanism. We have investigated the condition for the DE-like mechanism to operate in DMS's. The result reveals that the nonmagnetic attractive potential at the magnetic site assists the formation of the magnetic impurity band and makes the DE-like mechanism operative by substantially enhancing the effect of the exchange interaction. Using conventional parameters we have studied the carrier states in Ga1‚ąíx_{1-x}Mnx_xAs. The result shows that the ferromagnetism is caused through the DE-like mechanism by the carriers in the bandtail originating from the impurity states.Comment: 20 pages, 14 figure

    Role of Large Gluonic Excitation Energy for Narrow Width of Penta-Quark Baryons in QCD String Theory

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    We study the narrow decay width of low-lying penta-quark baryons in the QCD string theoryin terms of gluonic excitations. In the QCD string theory, the penta-quark baryon decays via a gluonic-excited state of a baryon and meson system, where a pair of Y-shaped junction and anti-junction is created. Since lattice QCD shows that the lowest gluonic-excitation energy takes a large value of about 1 GeV, the decay of the penta-quark baryon near the threshold is considered as a quantum tunneling process via a highly-excited state (a gluonic-excited state) in the QCD string theory. This mechanism strongly suppresses the decay and leads to an extremely narrow decay width of the penta-quark system.Comment: Talk given at International Conference on the Structure of Baryons (Baryons 04) October 25 - 29, 2004, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, Franc

    Takahashi Integral Equation and High-Temperature Expansion of the Heisenberg Chain

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    Recently a new integral equation describing the thermodynamics of the 1D Heisenberg model was discovered by Takahashi. Using the integral equation we have succeeded in obtaining the high temperature expansion of the specific heat and the magnetic susceptibility up to O((J/T)^{100}). This is much higher than those obtained so far by the standard methods such as the linked-cluster algorithm. Our results will be useful to examine various approximation methods to extrapolate the high temperature expansion to the low temperature region.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, 2 table

    Universal correlations of one-dimensional interacting electrons in the gas phase

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    We consider dynamical correlation functions of short range interacting electrons in one dimension at finite temperature. Below a critical value of the chemical potential there is no Fermi surface anymore, and the system can no longer be described as a Luttinger liquid. Its low temperature thermodynamics is that of an ideal gas. We identify the impenetrable electron gas model as a universal model for the gas phase and present exact and explicit expressions for the asymptotics of correlation functions at small temperatures, in the presence of a magnetic field.Comment: 4 pages, Revte

    Anisotropic radiation field and trapped photons around the Kerr black hole

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    Aims. In order to understand the anisotropic properties of local radiation field in the curved spacetime around a rotating black hole, we investigate the appearance of a black hole seen by an observer located near the black hole. When the black hole is in front of a source of illumination the black hole cast shadow in the illumination. Accordingly, the appearance of the black hole is called the black hole shadow. Methods. We first analytically describe the shape of the shadow in terms of constants of motion for a photon seen by the observer in the locally non-rotating reference frame (LNRF). Then, we newly derive the useful equation for the solid angle of the shadow. In a third step, we can easily plot the apparent image of the black hole shadow. Finally, we also calculate the ratio of the photon trapped by the hole and the escape photon to the distant region for photons emitted near the black hole. Results. From the shape and the size of the black hole shadow, we can understand the signatures of the curved spacetime; i.e., the mass and spin of the black hole. Our equations for the solid angle of the shadow has technical advantages in calculating the photon trapping ratio. That is, this equation is computationally very easy, and gives extremely precise results. This is because this equation is described by the one-parameter integration with given values of the spin and location for the black hole considered. After this, the solid angle can be obtained without numerical calculations of the null geodesics for photons.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Estimating a War of Attrition: The Case of the U.S. Movie Theater Industry

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    This paper provides a tractable empirical framework to analyze firm behavior in a dynamic oligopoly when demand is declining over time. I modify Fudenberg and Tirole (1986).s model of exit in a duopoly with incomplete information to a model that can be used in an oligopoly, and combine this with an auxiliary entry model to address the initial conditions problem. I estimate this model with panel data on the U.S. movie theater industry from 1949 to 1955, using variations in TV diffusion rates across households, market structure before the exit game starts, and other market characteristics to identify the parameters in the theater’s payoff function and the distribution of unobservable fixed costs. Using the estimated model, I measure strategic delays in the exit process due to oligopolistic competition and incomplete information. The delay in exit that arises from strategic interaction is 2.7 years on average. Out of these years, 3.7% of this delay is accounted for by incomplete information, while the remaining 96.3% is explained by oligopolistic competition
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