27,291 research outputs found

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb‚ąí1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ¬Ī\pm 0.002 (stat) ¬Ī\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ¬Ī\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Rh1, butyric acid, and curcumin slightly affect the survival of radiation-exposed colon cancer cells.

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    Cell viability of non-irradiated or irradiated colon cancer cells, (A) SNU-C1 cells, and (B) HCT116 cells, which were treated with 5, 10, and 50 őľmol/L of Rh1, butyric acid, and curcumin. Data presented ¬Ī SEM. ##p ###p **p < 0.01 compared to the IR group (gray columns). Control, non-irradiated; IR, irradiated; BA, butyric acid; CU, curcumin; SEM, standard error of the mean.</p

    Clinical effectiveness of fluorescence lymph node mapping using ICG for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy: a prospective case-control study

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    Background: The distinction between D3 lymph nodes and actual lymphatic pathways in primary tumors can be difficult during surgery, making it challenging to confirm the completeness of D3 lymph node dissection. Fluorescence lymph node mapping (FLNM) is a promising method for lymph node visualization. Purpose: This study aimed to assess whether FLNM enhances the effectiveness of D3 lymph node dissection in patients with right-sided colon cancer. Methods: Endoscopic submucosal indocyanine green injection were performed on the distal margin of the colon cancer. In an FLNM group, the lymphatic drainage pathway and distribution of D3 lymph nodes were explored. Pathological evaluations were conducted for the fluorescent D3 and non-fluorescent D3 lymph nodes. Results: The FLNM group showed a significantly higher number of harvested lymph nodes in the D3 area. In stage III patients, the proportion of D3 lymph node metastasis was significantly higher in the FLNM group. The harvested D3 lymph node count showed a proportional correlation with a metastatic lymph node count of up to 15. Conclusion: FLNM could be considered a promising new strategy to potentially increase harvested D3 lymph node counts in colon cancer surgery</p

    Measurement of multidifferential cross sections for dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV