233 research outputs found

    National trends in the outcomes of subarachnoid haemorrhage and the prognostic influence of stroke centre capability in Japan: retrospective cohort study

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    Objectives To examine the national, 6-year trends in in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) who underwent clipping or coiling and the prognostic influence of temporal trends in the Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) capabilities on patient outcomes in Japan.Design Retrospective study.Setting Six hundred and thirty-one primary care institutions in Japan.Participants Forty-five thousand and eleven patients with SAH who were urgently hospitalised, identified using the J-ASPECT Diagnosis Procedure Combination database.Primary and secondary outcome measures Annual number of patients with SAH who remained untreated, or who received clipping or coiling, in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale: 3–6) at discharge. Each CSC was assessed using a validated scoring system (CSC score: 1–25 points).Results In the overall cohort, in-hospital mortality decreased (year for trend, OR (95% CI): 0.97 (0.96 to 0.99)), while the proportion of poor functional outcomes remained unchanged (1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)). The proportion of patients who underwent clipping gradually decreased from 46.6% to 38.5%, while that of those who received coiling and those left untreated gradually increased from 16.9% to 22.6% and 35.4% to 38%, respectively. In-hospital mortality of coiled (0.94 (0.89 to 0.98)) and untreated (0.93 (0.90 to 0.96)) patients decreased, whereas that of clipped patients remained stable. CSC score improvement was associated with increased use of coiling (per 1-point increase, 1.14 (1.08 to 1.20)) but not with short-term patient outcomes regardless of treatment modality.Conclusions The 6-year trends indicated lower in-hospital mortality for patients with SAH (attributable to better outcomes), increased use of coiling and multidisciplinary care for untreated patients. Further increasing CSC capabilities may improve overall outcomes, mainly by increasing the use of coiling. Additional studies are necessary to determine the effect of confounders such as aneurysm complexity on outcomes of clipped patients in the modern endovascular era

    Carboxylated Poly-L-lysine Potentially Reduces Human Sperm DNA Fragmentation after Freeze-Thawing, and Its Function Is Enhanced by Low-Dose Resveratrol

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    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) that occurs during the freezing–thawing of sperm may negatively impact the treatment outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). In a previous study, we developed a human sperm cryopreservation reagent containing carboxylated poly-L-lysine (CPLL) that reduced SDF after freeze-thawing compared with clinically popular cryopreservation reagents containing human serum albumin. However, it is unclear whether CPLL reduces SDF, as it differed from the constituents of the commercial cryopreservation reagents used for comparison. Therefore, here, we examined whether CPLL reduces the SDF of human sperm and evaluated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and lipid peroxidation (LPO), which are the causes of SDF; mitochondrial injury, ROS production; and impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, optimal antioxidants and their concentrations that could further enhance the reduction in SDF were determined for future clinical application in ART and underwent the same functional evaluations. CPLL can reduce SDF via inhibition of intracytoplasmic ROS and LPO. Furthermore, the addition of 0.1 mM resveratrol avoided the enhancement of SDF, which potentially affects mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ROS and LPO. This novel human sperm cryopreservation reagent containing CPLL and resveratrol has the potential to improve treatment outcomes in ART using frozen sperm

    Clinical Utility of Germline Genetic Testing in Japanese Men Undergoing Prostate Biopsy

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    Background: Multiple common variants and also rare variants in monogenic risk genes such as BRCA2 and HOXB13 have been reported to be associated with risk of prostate cancer (PCa); however, the clinical setting in which germline genetic testing could be used for PCa diagnosis remains obscure. Herein, we tested the clinical utility of a 16 common variant-based polygenic risk score (PRS) that has been developed previously for Japanese men and also evaluated the frequency of PCa-associated rare variants in a prospective cohort of Japanese men undergoing prostate biopsy. Methods: A total of 1336 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy were included. PRS was calculated based on the genotype of 16 common variants, and sequencing of 8 prostate cancer-associated genes was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction based target sequencing. PRS was combined with clinical factors in logistic regression models to assess whether addition of PRS improves the prediction of biopsy positivity. Results: The top PRS decile was associated with an odds ratio of 4.10 (95% confidence interval = 2.46 to 6.86) with reference to the patients at average risk, and the estimated lifetime absolute risk approached 20%. Among the patients with prostate specific antigen 2-10 ng/mL who had prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging, high PRS had an equivalent impact on biopsy positivity as a positive magnetic resonance imaging finding. Rare variants were detected in 19 (2.37%) and 7 (1.31%) patients with positive and negative biopsies, respectively, with BRCA2 variants being the most prevalent. There was no association between PRS and high-risk rare variants. Conclusions: Germline genetic testing could be clinically useful in both pre- and post-PSA screening settings

    Pneumonia Caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 and Influenza Virus: A Multicenter Comparative Study

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    Background: Detailed differences in clinical information between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia (CP), which is the main phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 disease, and influenza pneumonia (IP) are still unclear. Methods: A prospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted by including patients with CP who were hospitalized between January and June 2020 and a retrospective cohort of patients with IP hospitalized from 2009 to 2020. We compared the clinical presentations and studied the prognostic factors of CP and IP. Results: Compared with the IP group (n = 66), in the multivariate analysis, the CP group (n = 362) had a lower percentage of patients with underlying asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < .01), lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P < .01), lower systolic blood pressure (P < .01), higher diastolic blood pressure (P < .01), lower aspartate aminotransferase level (P < .05), higher serum sodium level (P < .05), and more frequent multilobar infiltrates (P < .05). The diagnostic scoring system based on these findings showed excellent differentiation between CP and IP (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.889). Moreover, the prognostic predictors were different between CP and IP. Conclusions: Comprehensive differences between CP and IP were revealed, highlighting the need for early differentiation between these 2 pneumonias in clinical settings

    Relationship of the knee extensor strength but not the quadriceps femoris muscularity with sprint performance in sprinters: a reexamination and extension

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    Abstract Purpose This study examined the relationships of knee extensor strength and quadriceps femoris size with sprint performance in sprinters. Methods Fifty-eight male sprinters and 40 body size-matched male non-sprinters participated in this study. The knee extensor isometric and isokinetic strengths were measured using a dynamometer. The isokinetic strength measurements were performed with slow and fast velocities at 60°/s and 180°/s, respectively. The quadriceps femoris muscle volume (MV) was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. The relative knee extensor strengths and quadriceps femoris MV were calculated by normalizing to body mass. Results Absolute and relative knee extensor strengths during two velocity isokinetic contractions, but not during isometric contraction, were significantly higher in sprinters than in non-sprinters (P = 0.047 to < 0.001 for all). Such a significant difference was also observed for relative quadriceps femoris MV (P = 0.018). In sprinters, there were positive correlations between all three knee extensor strengths and quadriceps femoris MV (r = 0.421 to 0.531, P = 0.001 to < 0.001 for all). The absolute and relative strengths of the fast-velocity isokinetic knee extension correlated negatively with personal best 100-m sprint time (r = −0.477 and −0.409, P = 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, no such significant correlations were observed between absolute and relative quadriceps femoris MVs and personal best 100-m sprint time. Conclusions These findings suggest that despite the presence of the relationship between muscle strength and size, the knee extensor strength may be related to superior sprint performance in sprinters independently of the quadriceps femoris muscularity

    Frequent Mutations in the β-Catenin Gene in Cholangiocarcinoma

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    The molecular pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) remains unclear. β-Catenin functions in both intercellular adhesion and signal transduction. As a signaling molecule, mutations in exon 3 of the β-catenin gene encoding the regions phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β stabilize this protein in cytoplasm. Subsequently, accumulated β-catenin protein translocates to nuclei and up-regulates the transcriptional activity of genes involved in oncogenesis. Recently, mutations in exon 3 of the β-catenin gene were detected in various carcinomas. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, direct sequencing and subcloning-sequencing, we investigated mutations of exon 3 of the β-catenin gene in CC. Mutations were found in 26 out of 33 (78.8%) CC tumor samples. All of the mutations were heterozygous 1-base deletions at codon 15, resulting in a stop codon at codon 46. This is the first study demonstrating the presence of β-catenin gene mutations in CC. However, it was suggested that this mutation might not be involved in deregulation of β-catenin signaling, because no correlation was observed between the β-catenin mutation and immunolocalization of β-catenin protein

    Prevalences of hyperuricemia and electrolyte abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease in Japan: A nationwide, cross-sectional cohort study using data from the Japan Chronic Kidney Disease Database (J-CKD-DB).

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    BackgroundThe Japan Chronic Kidney Disease Database (J-CKD-DB) is a nationwide clinical database of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on electronic health records. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalences of hyperuricemia and electrolyte abnormalities in Japanese patients with CKD.MethodsIn total, 35,508 adult outpatients with estimated glomerular filtration rates of 5-60 ml/min/1.73 m2 in seven university hospitals were included this analysis. The proportions of patients with CKD stages G3b, G4, and G5 were 23.5%, 7.6%, and 3.1%, respectively.ResultsLogistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of hyperuricemia was associated with CKD stages G3b (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.12 [1.90-2.37]), G4 (4.57 [3.92-5.32]), and G5 (2.25 [1.80-2.80]). The respective prevalences of hyponatremia, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and narrower difference between serum sodium and chloride concentrations were elevated in patients with CKD stages G3b, G4, and G5, compared with those prevalences in patients with CKD stage G3a. The prevalences of hyperkalemia were 8.3% and 11.6% in patients with CKD stages G4 and G5, respectively. In patients with CKD stage G5, the proportions of patients with optimal ranges of serum uric acid, potassium, corrected calcium, and phosphate were 49.6%, 73.5%, 81.9%, and 56.1%, respectively.ConclusionsWe determined the prevalences of hyperuricemia and electrolyte abnormalities in Japanese patients with CKD using data from a nationwide cohort study

    Prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease in Japan: A nationwide, cross-sectional cohort study using data from the Japan Chronic Kidney Disease Database (J-CKD-DB)

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    Background: The Japan Chronic Kidney Disease Database (J-CKD-DB) is a nationwide clinical database of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on electronic health records. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and the utilization rate of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in Japanese patients with CKD. Methods: In total, 31, 082 adult outpatients with estimated glomerular filtration rates of 5–60 ml/min/1.73 m2 in seven university hospitals were included this analysis. The proportions of patients with CKD stages G3b, G4, and G5 were 23.5%, 7.6%, and 3.1%, respectively. Results: The mean (standard deviation) hemoglobin level of male patients was 13.6 (1.9) g/dl, which was significantly higher than the mean hemoglobin level of female patients (12.4 (1.6) g/dl). The mean (standard deviation) hemoglobin levels were 11.4 (2.1) g/dl in patients with CKD stage G4 and 11.2 (1.8) g/dl in patients with CKD stage G5. The prevalences of anemia were 40.1% in patients with CKD stage G4 and 60.3% in patients with CKD stage G5. Logistic regression analysis showed that diagnoses of CKD stage G3b (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.32 [2.09–2.58]), G4 (5.50 [4.80–6.31]), and G5 (9.75 [8.13–11.7]) were associated with increased prevalence of anemia. The utilization rates of ESAs were 7.9% in patients with CKD stage G4 and 22.4% in patients with CKD stage G5. Conclusions: We determined the prevalence of anemia and utilization rate of ESAs in Japanese patients with CKD using data from a nationwide cohort study
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