89 research outputs found

    Sprouty1, a new target of the angiostatic agent 16K prolactin, negatively regulates angiogenesis

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    BACKGROUND:Disorganized angiogenesis is associated with several pathologies, including cancer. The identification of new genes that control tumor neovascularization can provide novel insights for future anti-cancer therapies. Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the MAPK pathway, might be one of these new genes. We identified SPRY1 by comparing the transcriptomes of untreated endothelial cells with those of endothelial cells treated by the angiostatic agent 16K prolactin (16K hPRL). In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential function of SPRY1 in angiogenesis.RESULTS:We confirmed 16K hPRL induced up-regulation of SPRY1 in primary endothelial cells. In addition, we demonstrated the positive SPRY1 regulation in a chimeric mouse model of human colon carcinoma in which 16K hPRL treatment was shown to delay tumor growth. Expression profiling by qRT-PCR with species-specific primers revealed that induction of SPRY1 expression by 16K hPRL occurs only in the (murine) endothelial compartment and not in the (human) tumor compartment. The regulation of SPRY1 expression was NF-kappaB dependent. Partial SPRY1 knockdown by RNA interference protected endothelial cells from apoptosis as well as increased endothelial cell proliferation, migration, capillary network formation, and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. SPRY1 knockdown was also shown to affect the expression of cyclinD1 and p21 both involved in cell-cycle regulation. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of SPRY1 as an inhibitor of ERK/MAPK signaling and to a possible explanation of its effect on cell proliferation.CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, these results suggest that SPRY1 is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor

    CXCL-8/IL8 Produced by Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas Recruits Neutrophils Expressing a Proliferation-Inducing Ligand APRIL.

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    Tumor-infiltrating neutrophils have been implicated in malignant development and progression, but mechanisms are ill defined. Neutrophils produce a proliferation-inducing ligand APRIL/TNFSF13, a factor that promotes development of tumors from diverse origins, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). High APRIL expression in DLBCL correlates with reduced patient survival, but the pathway(s) dictating APRIL expression are not known. Here, we show that all blood neutrophils constitutively secrete APRIL, and inflammation-associated stimuli, such as TNF, further upregulate APRIL. In a significant fraction of DLBCL patients, tumor cells constitutively produced the ELC-CXC chemokine CXCL-8 (IL8), enabling them to recruit APRIL-producing blood neutrophils. CXCL-8 production in DLBCL was unrelated to the cell of origin, as APRIL-producing neutrophils infiltrated CXCL-8(+) DLBCL from both germinal center (GC) and non-GC subtypes. Rather, CXCL-8 production implied events affecting DNA methylation and acetylation. Overall, our results showed that chemokine-mediated recruitment of neutrophils secreting the tumor-promoting factor APRIL mediates DLBCL progression. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1097-107. ©2016 AACR

    Drug repurposing screen identifies Foxo1-dependent angiopoietin-2 regulation in sepsis

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    OBJECTIVE: The recent withdrawal of a targeted sepsis therapy has diminished pharmaceutical enthusiasm for developing novel drugs for the treatment of sepsis. Angiopoietin-2 is an endothelial-derived protein that potentiates vascular inflammation and leakage and may be involved in sepsis pathogenesis. We screened approved compounds for putative inhibitors of angiopoietin-2 production and investigated underlying molecular mechanisms. DESIGN: Laboratory and animal research plus prospective placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial (NCT00529139) and retrospective analysis (NCT00676897). SETTING: Research laboratories of Hannover Medical School and Harvard Medical School. PATIENTS: Septic patients/C57Bl/6 mice and human endothelial cells. INTERVENTIONS: Food and Drug Administration-approved library screening. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In a cell-based screen of more than 650 Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds, we identified multiple members of the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor drug class (referred to as statins) that suppressed angiopoietin-2. Simvastatin inhibited 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, which in turn activated PI3K-kinase. Downstream of this signaling, PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of the transcription factor Foxo1 at key amino acids inhibited its ability to shuttle to the nucleus and bind cis-elements in the angiopoietin-2 promoter. In septic mice, transient inhibition of angiopoietin-2 expression by liposomal siRNA in vivo improved absolute survival by 50%. Simvastatin had a similar effect, but the combination of angiopoietin-2 siRNA and simvastatin showed no additive benefit. To verify the link between statins and angiopoietin-2 in humans, we performed a pilot matched case-control study and a small randomized placebo-controlled trial demonstrating beneficial effects on angiopoietin-2. CONCLUSIONS: 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors may operate through a novel Foxo1-angiopoietin-2 mechanism to suppress de novo production of angiopoietin-2 and thereby ameliorate manifestations of sepsis. Given angiopoietin-2's dual role as a biomarker and candidate disease mediator, early serum angiopoietin-2 measurement may serve as a stratification tool for future trials of drugs targeting vascular leakage

    GATA2 is required for lymphatic vessel valve development and maintenance.

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    Heterozygous germline mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor GATA2 have recently been shown to underlie a range of clinical phenotypes, including Emberger syndrome, a disorder characterized by lymphedema and predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML). Despite well-defined roles in hematopoiesis, the functions of GATA2 in the lymphatic vasculature and the mechanisms by which GATA2 mutations result in lymphedema have not been characterized. Here, we have provided a molecular explanation for lymphedema predisposition in a subset of patients with germline GATA2 mutations. Specifically, we demonstrated that Emberger-associated GATA2 missense mutations result in complete loss of GATA2 function, with respect to the capacity to regulate the transcription of genes that are important for lymphatic vessel valve development. We identified a putative enhancer element upstream of the key lymphatic transcriptional regulator PROX1 that is bound by GATA2, and the transcription factors FOXC2 and NFATC1. Emberger GATA2 missense mutants had a profoundly reduced capacity to bind this element. Conditional Gata2 deletion in mice revealed that GATA2 is required for both development and maintenance of lymphovenous and lymphatic vessel valves. Together, our data unveil essential roles for GATA2 in the lymphatic vasculature and explain why a select catalogue of human GATA2 mutations results in lymphedema

    Glutaredoxin-1 up-regulation induces soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, attenuating post-ischemia limb revascularization

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    Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a cytosolic enzyme that regulates diverse cellular function by removal of GSH adducts from S-glutathionylated proteins including signaling molecules and transcription factors. Glrx is up-regulated during inflammation and diabetes. Glrx overexpression inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration. The aim was to investigate the role of up-regulated Glrx in EC angiogenic capacities and in vivo revascularization in the setting of hind limb ischemia. Glrx overexpressing EC from Glrx transgenic mice (TG) showed impaired migration and network formation and secreted higher level of soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt), an antagonizing factor to VEGF. After hind limb ischemia surgery Glrx TG mice demonstrated impaired blood flow recovery, associated with lower capillary density and poorer limb motor function compared to wild type littermates. There were also higher levels of anti-angiogenic sFlt expression in the muscle and plasma of Glrx TG mice after surgery. Non-canonical Wnt5a is known to induce sFlt. Wnt5a was highly expressed in ischemic muscles and EC from Glrx TG mice, and exogenous Wnt5a induced sFlt expression and inhibited network formation in human microvascular EC. Adenoviral Glrx-induced sFlt in EC was inhibited by a competitive Wnt5a inhibitor. Furthermore, Glrx overexpression removed GSH adducts on p65 in ischemic muscle and EC, and enhanced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) activity which was responsible for Wnt5a-sFlt induction. Taken together, up-regulated Glrx induces sFlt in EC via NF-kB -dependent Wnt5a, resulting in attenuated revascularization in hind limb ischemia. The Glrx-induced sFlt may be a part of mechanism of redox regulated VEGF signaling

    Proteomic characterization of HIV-modulated membrane receptors, kinases and signaling proteins involved in novel angiogenic pathways

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), hemangioma, and other angioproliferative diseases are highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. While KS is etiologically linked to the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV8) infection, HIV-patients without HHV-8 and those infected with unrelated viruses also develop angiopathies. Further, HIV-Tat can activate protein-tyrosine-kinase (PTK-activity) of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor involved in stimulating angiogenic processes. However, Tat by itself or HHV8-genes alone cannot induce angiogenesis <it>in vivo </it>unless specific proteins/enzymes are produced synchronously by different cell-types. We therefore tested a hypothesis that <it>chronic </it>HIV-<it>replication in non-endothelial cells </it>may produce novel factors that provoke angiogenic pathways.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Genome-wide proteins from HIV-infected and uninfected T-lymphocytes were tested by subtractive proteomics analyses at various stages of virus and cell growth <it>in vitro </it>over a period of two years. Several thousand differentially regulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and >200 proteins were confirmed in multiple gels. Each protein was scrutinized extensively by protein-interaction-pathways, bioinformatics, and statistical analyses.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>By functional categorization, 31 proteins were identified to be associated with various signaling events involved in angiogenesis. 88% proteins were located in the plasma membrane or extracellular matrix and >90% were found to be essential for regeneration, neovascularization and angiogenic processes during embryonic development.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Chronic HIV-infection of T-cells produces membrane receptor-PTKs, serine-threonine kinases, growth factors, adhesion molecules and many diffusible signaling proteins that have not been previously reported in HIV-infected cells. Each protein has been associated with endothelial cell-growth, morphogenesis, sprouting, microvessel-formation and other biological processes involved in angiogenesis (p = 10<sup>-4 </sup>to 10<sup>-12</sup>). Bioinformatics analyses suggest that overproduction of PTKs and other kinases in HIV-infected cells has <it>suppressed </it>VEGF/VEGFR-PTK expression and promoted <it>VEGFR-independent </it>pathways. This unique mechanism is similar to that observed in neovascularization and angiogenesis during embryogenesis. Validation of clinically relevant proteins by gene-silencing and translational studies <it>in vivo </it>would identify specific targets that can be used for early diagnosis of angiogenic disorders and future development of inhibitors of angiopathies. This is the first comprehensive study to demonstrate that HIV-infection alone, without any co-infection or treatment, can induce numerous "embryonic" proteins and kinases capable of generating novel <it>VEGF-independent </it>angiogenic pathways.</p

    Tumour vascularization: sprouting angiogenesis and beyond

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    Tumour angiogenesis is a fast growing domain in tumour biology. Many growth factors and mechanisms have been unravelled. For almost 30 years, the sprouting of new vessels out of existing ones was considered as an exclusive way of tumour vascularisation. However, over the last years several additional mechanisms have been identified. With the discovery of the contribution of intussusceptive angiogenesis, recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells, vessel co-option, vasculogenic mimicry and lymphangiogenesis to tumour growth, anti-tumour targeting strategies will be more complex than initially thought. This review highlights these processes and intervention as a potential application in cancer therapy. It is concluded that future anti-vascular therapies might be most beneficial when based on multimodal anti-angiogenic, anti-vasculogenic mimicry and anti-lymphangiogenic strategies
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