36 research outputs found

    FCC-ee: The Lepton Collider: Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 2

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    In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched, as an international collaboration hosted by CERN. This study covers a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee) and an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), which could, successively, be installed in the same 100 km tunnel. The scientific capabilities of the integrated FCC programme would serve the worldwide community throughout the 21st century. The FCC study also investigates an LHC energy upgrade, using FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the second volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the electron-positron collider FCC-ee. After summarizing the physics discovery opportunities, it presents the accelerator design, performance reach, a staged operation scenario, the underlying technologies, civil engineering, technical infrastructure, and an implementation plan. FCC-ee can be built with today’s technology. Most of the FCC-ee infrastructure could be reused for FCC-hh. Combining concepts from past and present lepton colliders and adding a few novel elements, the FCC-ee design promises outstandingly high luminosity. This will make the FCC-ee a unique precision instrument to study the heaviest known particles (Z, W and H bosons and the top quark), offering great direct and indirect sensitivity to new physics

    Indication of the Maillard reaction during storage of protein isolates

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    In a previous study, feeding an isolated soy protein (ISP)-based diet to rats was found to reduce colon cancer risk as assessed by a reduced number of colonic precancerous lesions. However, this same ISP, after storage at room temperature for >2 years, increased the number of precancerous lesions (Gallaher et al., 1996). We hypothesize that this increase was due to the development of Maillard reaction products in the ISP during storage. Thus, the objective of this study was monitor development of the Maillard reaction during storage of ISP and delactosed whey protein concentrate. Proteins were stored at different water activities (0.22, 0.33, 0.55) and temperatures (22, 30, 45 degrees C) with and without glucose (5% w/w) and increases in browning (A = 420 nm) and fluorescence (lambda(ex) 365 nm/lambda(em) 475 nm) determined. In the absence of glucose, only soy protein underwent browning; otherwise the rate of browning and fluorescence increased with increasing temperature and water activity. To investigate why ISP underwent browning in the absence of glucose while whey protein concentrate did not, the reaction of genistein was investigated. Genistein is an isoflavone with putative chemoprotective properties found in ISP but not in whey. Genistein(2 mM) was incubated alone or with lysine (2 mM) in buffer. The absorbance (A = 420 nm) of the reaction mixtures and genistein concentration was measured over time. It was found that genistein underwent reaction both alone and in the presence of lysine. The rate of browning was found to parallel the rate of genistein loss, suggesting that genistein plays a role as a reactant in nonenzymatic browning reactions. This suggests that long-term storage of ISP will lead to the loss of genistein and potentially result in the development of carcinogens.4672485248