7,555 research outputs found

    The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2024: phenotypes around the world.

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    The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is a widely used resource that comprehensively organizes and defines the phenotypic features of human disease, enabling computational inference and supporting genomic and phenotypic analyses through semantic similarity and machine learning algorithms. The HPO has widespread applications in clinical diagnostics and translational research, including genomic diagnostics, gene-disease discovery, and cohort analytics. In recent years, groups around the world have developed translations of the HPO from English to other languages, and the HPO browser has been internationalized, allowing users to view HPO term labels and in many cases synonyms and definitions in ten languages in addition to English. Since our last report, a total of 2239 new HPO terms and 49235 new HPO annotations were developed, many in collaboration with external groups in the fields of psychiatry, arthrogryposis, immunology and cardiology. The Medical Action Ontology (MAxO) is a new effort to model treatments and other measures taken for clinical management. Finally, the HPO consortium is contributing to efforts to integrate the HPO and the GA4GH Phenopacket Schema into electronic health records (EHRs) with the goal of more standardized and computable integration of rare disease data in EHRs

    The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2024: phenotypes around the world

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    \ua9 The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is a widely used resource that comprehensively organizes and defines the phenotypic features of human disease, enabling computational inference and supporting genomic and phenotypic analyses through semantic similarity and machine learning algorithms. The HPO has widespread applications in clinical diagnostics and translational research, including genomic diagnostics, gene-disease discovery, and cohort analytics. In recent years, groups around the world have developed translations of the HPO from English to other languages, and the HPO browser has been internationalized, allowing users to view HPO term labels and in many cases synonyms and definitions in ten languages in addition to English. Since our last report, a total of 2239 new HPO terms and 49235 new HPO annotations were developed, many in collaboration with external groups in the fields of psychiatry, arthrogryposis, immunology and cardiology. The Medical Action Ontology (MAxO) is a new effort to model treatments and other measures taken for clinical management. Finally, the HPO consortium is contributing to efforts to integrate the HPO and the GA4GH Phenopacket Schema into electronic health records (EHRs) with the goal of more standardized and computable integration of rare disease data in EHRs

    Variant Location Is a Novel Risk Factor for Individuals With Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy Due to a Desmoplakin (DSP) Truncating Variant.

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    BACKGROUND: Truncating variants in desmoplakin (DSPtv) are an important cause of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; however the genetic architecture and genotype-specific risk factors are incompletely understood. We evaluated phenotype, risk factors for ventricular arrhythmias, and underlying genetics of DSPtv cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Individuals with DSPtv and any cardiac phenotype, and their gene-positive family members were included from multiple international centers. Clinical data and family history information were collected. Event-free survival from ventricular arrhythmia was assessed. Variant location was compared between cases and controls, and literature review of reported DSPtv performed. RESULTS: There were 98 probands and 72 family members (mean age at diagnosis 43¬Ī8 years, 59% women) with a DSPtv, of which 146 were considered clinically affected. Ventricular arrhythmia (sudden cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy) occurred in 56 (33%) individuals. DSPtv location and proband status were independent risk factors for ventricular arrhythmia. Further, gene region was important with variants in cases (cohort n=98; Clinvar n=167) more likely to occur in the regions resulting in nonsense mediated decay of both major DSP isoforms, compared with n=124 genome aggregation database control variants (148 [83.6%] versus 29 [16.4%]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest series of individuals with DSPtv, we demonstrate that variant location is a novel risk factor for ventricular arrhythmia, can inform variant interpretation, and provide critical insights to allow for precision-based clinical management

    Genome-wide Association Study for Acute Kidney Injury

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    BACKGROUND: While common genetic risks for chronic kidney disease are well established, genetic factors influencing risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients are poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,369 participants in the Assessment, Serial Evaluation, and Subsequent Sequelae of AKI (ASSESS-AKI) Study; a multi-ethnic population of hospitalized participants with and without AKI matched on demographics, comorbidities and kidney function prior to hospitalization. We then completed functional annotation of top-performing variants for AKI using single cell RNA sequencing data from kidney biopsies in 12 AKI patients and 18 healthy living donors from the Kidney Precision Medicine Project (KPMP). RESULTS: No genome-wide significant associations with AKI risk were found in ASSESS-AKI (p \u3c 5 x 10-8 ). The top two variants with the strongest association with AKI mapped to the dispatched RND transporter family member 1 (DISP1) gene and toll like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene locus, rs17538288 (OR=1.55, 95% CI:1.32-182, p=9.47 x 10-8 ) and rs7546189 (OR=1.53, 95% CI:1.30-1.81, p=4.60 x 10-7 ). In comparison to kidney tissue from healthy living donors, kidney biopsies in patients with AKI showed differential DISP1 expression in proximal tubular epithelial cells (adjusted p=3.9 x 10 -2 ) and thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL) (adjusted p =8.7 x 10 -3 ) and differential TLR5 gene expression in TAL (adjusted p =4.9 x 10 -30 ). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome with various underlying risk factors, etiologies and pathophysiology that may limit the identification of genetic variants. While no variants reached genome wide significance, we report two variants in the intergenic region between DISP1 and TLR5 , suggesting this region as a novel risk for AKI susceptibility

    Linking Symptom Inventories using Semantic Textual Similarity

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    An extensive library of symptom inventories has been developed over time to measure clinical symptoms, but this variety has led to several long standing issues. Most notably, results drawn from different settings and studies are not comparable, which limits reproducibility. Here, we present an artificial intelligence (AI) approach using semantic textual similarity (STS) to link symptoms and scores across previously incongruous symptom inventories. We tested the ability of four pre-trained STS models to screen thousands of symptom description pairs for related content - a challenging task typically requiring expert panels. Models were tasked to predict symptom severity across four different inventories for 6,607 participants drawn from 16 international data sources. The STS approach achieved 74.8% accuracy across five tasks, outperforming other models tested. This work suggests that incorporating contextual, semantic information can assist expert decision-making processes, yielding gains for both general and disease-specific clinical assessment

    Models of classroom assessment for course-based research experiences

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    Course-based research pedagogy involves positioning students as contributors to authentic research projects as part of an engaging educational experience that promotes their learning and persistence in science. To develop a model for assessing and grading students engaged in this type of learning experience, the assessment aims and practices of a community of experienced course-based research instructors were collected and analyzed. This approach defines four aims of course-based research assessment‚ÄĒ(1) Assessing Laboratory Work and Scientific Thinking; (2) Evaluating Mastery of Concepts, Quantitative Thinking and Skills; (3) Appraising Forms of Scientific Communication; and (4) Metacognition of Learning‚ÄĒalong with a set of practices for each aim. These aims and practices of assessment were then integrated with previously developed models of course-based research instruction to reveal an assessment program in which instructors provide extensive feedback to support productive student engagement in research while grading those aspects of research that are necessary for the student to succeed. Assessment conducted in this way delicately balances the need to facilitate students‚Äô ongoing research with the requirement of a final grade without undercutting the important aims of a CRE education

    An integrated cell atlas of the lung in health and disease

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    Single-cell technologies have transformed our understanding of human tissues. Yet, studies typically capture only a limited number of donors and disagree on cell type definitions. Integrating many single-cell datasets can address these limitations of individual studies and capture the variability present in the population. Here we present the integrated Human Lung Cell Atlas (HLCA), combining 49 datasets of the human respiratory system into a single atlas spanning over 2.4 million cells from 486 individuals. The HLCA presents a consensus cell type re-annotation with matching marker genes, including annotations of rare and previously undescribed cell types. Leveraging the number and diversity of individuals in the HLCA, we identify gene modules that are associated with demographic covariates such as age, sex and body mass index, as well as gene modules changing expression along the proximal-to-distal axis of the bronchial tree. Mapping new data to the HLCA enables rapid data annotation and interpretation. Using the HLCA as a reference for the study of disease, we identify shared cell states across multiple lung diseases, including SPP1(+) profibrotic monocyte-derived macrophages in COVID-19, pulmonary fibrosis and lung carcinoma. Overall, the HLCA serves as an example for the development and use of large-scale, cross-dataset organ atlases within the Human Cell Atlas.A single-cell atlas of the human lungs, integrating data from 2.4 million cells from 486 individuals and including samples from healthy and diseased lungs, provides a roadmap for the generation of organ-scale cell atlases.Peer reviewe

    Variant Location Is a Novel Risk Factor for Individuals With Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy Due to a Desmoplakin (DSP) Truncating Variant

    No full text
    BACKGROUND: Truncating variants in desmoplakin (DSPtv) are an important cause of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; however the genetic architecture and genotype-specific risk factors are incompletely understood. We evaluated phenotype, risk factors for ventricular arrhythmias, and underlying genetics of DSPtv cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Individuals with DSPtv and any cardiac phenotype, and their gene-positive family members were included from multiple international centers. Clinical data and family history information were collected. Event-free survival from ventricular arrhythmia was assessed. Variant location was compared between cases and controls, and literature review of reported DSPtv performed. RESULTS: There were 98 probands and 72 family members (mean age at diagnosis 43¬Ī8 years, 59% women) with a DSPtv, of which 146 were considered clinically affected. Ventricular arrhythmia (sudden cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy) occurred in 56 (33%) individuals. DSPtv location and proband status were independent risk factors for ventricular arrhythmia. Further, gene region was important with variants in cases (cohort n=98; Clinvar n=167) more likely to occur in the regions, resulting in nonsense mediated decay of both major DSP isoforms, compared with n=124 gnomAD control variants (148 [83.6%] versus 29 [16.4%]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest series of individuals with DSPtv, we demonstrate that variant location is a novel risk factor for ventricular arrhythmia, can inform variant interpretation, and provide critical insights to allow for precision-based clinical management
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