289 research outputs found

    Global urban environmental change drives adaptation in white clover

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    Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban-rural gradients were associated with the evolution of clines in defense in 47% of cities throughout the world. Variation in the strength of clines was explained by environmental changes in drought stress and vegetation cover that varied among cities. Sequencing 2074 genomes from 26 cities revealed that the evolution of urban-rural clines was best explained by adaptive evolution, but the degree of parallel adaptation varied among cities. Our results demonstrate that urbanization leads to adaptation at a global scale

    Global urban environmental change drives adaptation in white clover

    No full text
    Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban-rural gradients were associated with the evolution of clines in defense in 47% of cities throughout the world. Variation in the strength of clines was explained by environmental changes in drought stress and vegetation cover that varied among cities. Sequencing 2074 genomes from 26 cities revealed that the evolution of urban-rural clines was best explained by adaptive evolution, but the degree of parallel adaptation varied among cities. Our results demonstrate that urbanization leads to adaptation at a global scale

    Mediterranean afterlives and the memory of Black presence

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    This article constitutes a long commentary on the section 'geographies of the Black Mediterranean', special issue in this Journa

    Kamituga: Digital Gold

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    Questa Ăš una sala espositiva all'interno della piĂč ampia mostra "Planet Digital" (https://www.planetdigital.ch/en) ospitata dal Museum fĂŒr Gestaltung, Zurigo, Svizzera (dal 20.2.2022 al 6.6.2022

    Global urban environmental change drives adaptation in white clover

    No full text
    Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban-rural gradients were associated with the evolution of clines in defense in 47% of cities throughout the world. Variation in the strength of clines was explained by environmental changes in drought stress and vegetation cover that varied among cities. Sequencing 2074 genomes from 26 cities revealed that the evolution of urban-rural clines was best explained by adaptive evolution, but the degree of parallel adaptation varied among cities. Our results demonstrate that urbanization leads to adaptation at a global scale

    Spatial and seasonal variation in reproductive indices of the clupeids Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae in the Congolese waters of northern Lake Tanganyika

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    peer reviewedKnowledge on the reproductive biology of the endemic clupeids Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae, two main target species of the pelagic fisheries of Lake Tanganyika, is constrained by fragmented monitoring activities. Here, we investigate the nursing areas of L. miodon, the timing of reproductive activities of littoral and pelagic L. miodon, and the timing of reproductive activities of pelagic S. tanganicae in the Congolese waters of the northern end of Lake Tanganyika (Bujumbura sub-basin). Nursing areas were determined year-round (2009–2010) based on the presence of clupeid larvae at two sandy and two stony beaches. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the proportion of fish having ripe gonads were used to study variation in reproductive indices in space (littoral vs. pelagic zones) during one year (2013–2014), as well as in time (dry vs. rainy season) during three years (2013–2016). Larvae of L. miodon were more frequently encountered on sandy than on stony beaches. Mature L. miodon females were more abundant in the littoral than in the pelagic zone, while the proportion of mature males in both habitats was similar. Irregular, low amplitude peaks could be distinguished in the GSI and proportion of mature males and females, but averages only differed between the dry and the rainy season in males. In contrast, GSI and proportions of mature males and females in S. tanganicae were higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The reproductive effort of males and females of S. tanganicae and littoral L. miodon, but not pelagic L. miodon, was strongly synchronized. Interestingly, reproductive investment was also synchronised between pelagic male L. miodon, and pelagic S. tanganicae. Our time series strongly supports the view that L. miodon reproduces year-round in the littoral zone, while reproduction in S. tanganicae is seasonal. For fisheries management, we recommend year-round protection of sandy beaches, which are the main breeding grounds for L. miodon. © 2022, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. All rights reserved

    Global urban environmental change drives adaptation in white clover

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    Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban-rural gradients were associated with the evolution of clines in defense in 47% of cities throughout the world. Variation in the strength of clines was explained by environmental changes in drought stress and vegetation cover that varied among cities. Sequencing 2074 genomes from 26 cities revealed that the evolution of urban-rural clines was best explained by adaptive evolution, but the degree of parallel adaptation varied among cities. Our results demonstrate that urbanization leads to adaptation at a global scale

    Global urban environmental change drives adaptation in white clover.

    Get PDF
    Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban-rural gradients were associated with the evolution of clines in defense in 47% of cities throughout the world. Variation in the strength of clines was explained by environmental changes in drought stress and vegetation cover that varied among cities. Sequencing 2074 genomes from 26 cities revealed that the evolution of urban-rural clines was best explained by adaptive evolution, but the degree of parallel adaptation varied among cities. Our results demonstrate that urbanization leads to adaptation at a global scale

    Science (New York, N.Y.)

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