683 research outputs found

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear un derstanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5‚Äď7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8‚Äď11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world‚Äôs most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepre sented in biodiversity databases.13‚Äď15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may elim inate pieces of the Amazon‚Äôs biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological com munities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple or ganism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region‚Äôs vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most ne glected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lostinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

    Get PDF
    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time, and attempts to address it require a clear understanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space. While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes, vast areas of the tropics remain understudied. In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world's most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity, but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepresented in biodiversity databases. To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications may eliminate pieces of the Amazon's biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological communities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge, it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple organism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region's vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most neglected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lost

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

    Get PDF

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

    Get PDF
    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear understanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5,6,7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8,9,10,11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world's most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepresented in biodiversity databases.13,14,15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may eliminate pieces of the Amazon's biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological communities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple organism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region's vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most neglected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lost

    Exploring Social Protection Opportunities through Everyday Navigations of Women Informal Workers: the Case of Buguruni Food Vending Network in Dar Es Salaam

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    The contribution of social networks in providing insurance against various urban vulnerabilities cannot be underestimated among workers. Urban residents working in the informal sector face everyday challenges related to public spaces and harassment from police and local authorities, low incomes, and poverty when they cannot work due to sickness or accidents. Women workers face additional hardships due to their reproductive roles when choosing between going to work or caring for children or their health during maternity periods. Social networks have a significant role in cushioning the urban residents against financial insecurity, ultimately reducing the harsh outcomes of insecure employment activities and poverty. This paper intends to highlight how such social networks assist in insurance against risks associated with working on the streets. The study adopted a qualitative technique to collect Buguruni Food vending network data. Interviews (47 participants), documentary reviews and non-participatory field observation were applied. Findings showed increasing evidence that networks are critical to poor people due to their flexible operations and significant contributions to promoting access to capital required to boost food vending operations. Since communities are vulnerable to risks, social networks have become one of the essential factors for reducing the shock or stress to members. Social networks play a significant role in initiating collective solutions that have an effect and, in the end, influence change in the community. Eventually, the initiative is undertaken as a community plan

    Inclusion of informal economic actors in voluntary social security schemes: A study of motorcycle taxi service (bodaboda) in Dar es Salaam

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    This study explores and organizes the informal motorcycle transport operators to understand how motorcycle taxi service (boda-boda) riders join or refrain from becoming members of social security schemes that provide social protection. The study examines the perceptions of boda-boda actors toward voluntary contribution to social security schemes. The study employed a case study research design whereby qualitative methods were used to collect data through face-to-face interviews with motorcycle operators in Dar es Salaam. Motorcycle operators seem to be a lucrative employment sector for many youths and provide informal mobility services for urban residents; the activity faces many safety risks, physical disability from accidents, motorcycle theft, unreliable incomes and job insecurity; yet many are not members of the formal social security system. The study found that motorcycle operators established savings associations as social security institutions. These social security associations provide loans, moral and psychosocial support to members. The findings further indicate that flexible association norms and swift access to social security support in an event one has had a misfortune such as an accident or sickness make most association members prefer the association rather than formal social security schemes. This calls for legal, social security to adopt operational conditions that provide swift support to its members and the need for them to support and collaborate with these informal social security associations

    Defining endogenous TACC3‚ÄďchTOG‚Äďclathrin‚ÄďGTSE1 interactions at the mitotic spindle using induced relocalization

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    A multiprotein complex containing TACC3, clathrin and other proteins has been implicated in mitotic spindle stability. To disrupt this complex in an anti-cancer context, we need to understand its composition and how it interacts with microtubules. Induced relocalization of proteins in cells is a powerful way to analyze protein‚Äďprotein interactions and, additionally, monitor where and when these interactions occur. We used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to add tandem FKBP‚ÄďGFP tags to each complex member. The relocalization of endogenous tagged protein from the mitotic spindle to mitochondria and assessment of the effect on other proteins allowed us to establish that TACC3 and clathrin are core complex members and that chTOG (also known as CKAP5) and GTSE1 are ancillary to the complex, binding respectively to TACC3 and clathrin, but not each other. We also show that PIK3C2A, a clathrin-binding protein that was proposed to stabilize the TACC3‚ÄďchTOG‚Äďclathrin‚ÄďGTSE1 complex during mitosis, is not a member of the complex. This work establishes that targeting the TACC3‚Äďclathrin interface or their microtubule-binding sites are the two strategies most likely to disrupt spindle stability mediated by this multiprotein complex

    Sparing land for secondary forest regeneration protects more tropical biodiversity than land sharing in cattle farming landscapes

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    Effectively managing farming to meet food demand is vital for the future of biodiversity. Increasing yields on existing farmland can allow the abandonment (sparing) of low-yielding areas that subsequently recover as secondary forest. A key question is whether such ‚Äúsecondary sparing‚ÄĚ conserves biodiversity more effectively than retaining wildlife-friendly habitat within farmland (‚Äúland sharing‚ÄĚ). Focusing on the Colombian Choco-Andes, a global hotspot of threatened biodiversity, and on cattle farming, we examined the outcomes of secondary sparing and land sharing via simulated scenarios that maintained constant landscape-wide production and equal within-pasture yield: (1) for species and functional diversity of dung beetles and birds; (2) for avian phylogenetic diversity; and (3) across different stages of secondary forest regeneration, relative to spared primary forests. Sparing older secondary forests (15‚Äď30 years recovery) promotes substantial species, functional, and phylogenetic (birds only) diversity benefits for birds and dung beetles compared to land sharing. Species of conservation concern had higher occupancy estimates under land-sparing compared to land-sharing scenarios. Spared secondary forests accumulated equivalent diversity to primary forests for dung beetles within 15 years and within 15‚Äď30 years for birds, highlighting the need for longer term protection to maximize the biodiversity gains of secondary sparing. Promoting the recovery and protection of large expanses of secondary forests under the land-sparing model provides a critical mechanism for protecting tropical biodiversity, with important implications for concurrently assisting in the delivery of global targets to restore 350 million hectares of forested landscapes. Edwards et al. use landscape simulations from bird and dung beetle field data to reveal functional, phylogenetic, and species diversity benefits of secondary forest sparing outweigh land sharing. Sparing tracks of secondary forest recovers similar biodiversity to primary sparing in 15‚Äď30 years, assisting global restoration and conservation goals

    Calcium in Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions

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