1,123 research outputs found

    Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase.

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    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using (32)P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid (32)P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential (32)P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid (32)P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of (32)P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in (32)P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in (32)P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented

    Extracellular spermine triggers a rapid intracellular phosphatidic acid response in arabidopsis, involving PLDδ activation and stimulating ion flux

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    Polyamines, such as putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm), are low-molecular-weight polycationic molecules found in all living organisms. Despite the fact that they have been implicated in various important developmental and adaptative processes, their mode of action is still largely unclear. Here, we report that Put, Spd, and Spm trigger a rapid increase in the signaling lipid, phosphatidic acid (PA) in Arabidopsis seedlings but also mature leaves. Using time-course and dose-response experiments, Spm was found to be the most effective; promoting PA responses at physiological (low μM) concentrations. In seedlings, the increase of PA occurred mainly in the root and partly involved the plasma membrane polyamine-uptake transporter (PUT), RMV1. Using a differential 32Pi-labeling strategy combined with transphosphatidylation assays and T-DNA insertion mutants, we found that phospholipase D (PLD), and in particular PLDδ was the main contributor of the increase in PA. Measuring non-invasive ion fluxes (MIFE) across the root plasma membrane of wild type and pldδ-mutant seedlings, revealed that the formation of PA is linked to a gradual- and transient efflux of K+. Potential mechanisms of how PLDδ and the increase of PA are involved in polyamine function is discussed

    Расчет ГИН по схеме Аркадьева-Маркса

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    Объектом исследования является генератор импульсного напряжения по схеме Аркадьева-Маркса. Цель работы: спроектировать и рассчитать генератор импульсных напряжений. В процессе работы рассчитаны количественные значения элементов ГИНа: значения коэффициентов использования разрядной схемы и волны; емкость и индуктивность конденсатора; количество ступеней; фронтовое и разрядное сопротивления. Был выполнен расчет ресурсов, ставки налогов, отчислений. Так же было описаны рабочее место и законодательные и нормативные документы.The object of study is the generator of pulse voltage according to the scheme Arkadiev-Marx. Objective: to design and calculate the voltage impulse generator. In the process, the calculated quantitative values of the elements of a Hin: the coefficients of use of the discharge circuit and wave; the capacitance and inductance of the capacitor; number of steps; the front and discharge resistors. Calculated resources, tax rates, deductions. As described workplace and legislative and regulatory documents

    First Observation of 15Be

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    The neutron-unbound nucleus 15Be was observed for the first time. It was populated using neutron transfer from a deuterated polyethylene target with a 59 MeV/u 14Be beam. Neutrons were measured in coincidence with outgoing 14Be particles and the reconstructed decay energy spectrum exhibits a resonance at 1.8(1) MeV. This corresponds to 15Be being unbound by 0.45 MeV more then 16Be thus significantly hindering the sequential two-neutron decay of 16Be to 14Be through this state

    Further Insights into the Reaction Be14(CH2,X)10He

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    A previously published measurement of the reaction of a 59 MeV/nucleon 14Be beam on a deuterated polyethylene target was further analyzed to search for 12He as well as initial state effects in the population of the 10He ground state. No evidence for either was found. A lower limit of about 1 MeV was determined for a possible resonance in 12He. In addition, the three-body decay energy spectrum of 10He could not be described by a reaction mechanism calculation based on the halo structure of the initial 14Be assuming a direct α-particle removal reaction

    Structure and Decay Correlations of Two-Neutron Systems Beyond the Dripline

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    The two-neutron unbound systems of 16Be, 13Li, 10He, and 26O have been measured using the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and 4 Tm Sweeper magnet setup. The correlations of the 3-body decay for the 16Be and 13Li were extracted and demonstrated a strong correlated enhancement between the two neutrons. The measurement of the 10He ground state resonance from a 14Be(−2p2n) reaction provided insight into previous predictions that wavefunction of the entrance channel, projectile, can influence the observed decay energy spectrum for the unbound system. Lastly, the decay-in-target (DiT) technique was utilized to extract the lifetime of the 26O ground state. The measured lifetime of 4.5+1.1 −1.5 (stat.)±3(sys.) ps provides the first indication of two-neutron radioactivity