318 research outputs found

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents from 48 countries: a cross-sectional study

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    Background: Approximately 450 000 children are born with familial hypercholesterolaemia worldwide every year, yet only 2·1% of adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia were diagnosed before age 18 years via current diagnostic approaches, which are derived from observations in adults. We aimed to characterise children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and understand current approaches to the identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia to inform future public health strategies. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we assessed children and adolescents younger than 18 years with a clinical or genetic diagnosis of HeFH at the time of entry into the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) registry between Oct 1, 2015, and Jan 31, 2021. Data in the registry were collected from 55 regional or national registries in 48 countries. Diagnoses relying on self-reported history of familial hypercholesterolaemia and suspected secondary hypercholesterolaemia were excluded from the registry; people with untreated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of at least 13·0 mmol/L were excluded from this study. Data were assessed overall and by WHO region, World Bank country income status, age, diagnostic criteria, and index-case status. The main outcome of this study was to assess current identification and management of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Findings: Of 63 093 individuals in the FHSC registry, 11 848 (18·8%) were children or adolescents younger than 18 years with HeFH and were included in this study; 5756 (50·2%) of 11 476 included individuals were female and 5720 (49·8%) were male. Sex data were missing for 372 (3·1%) of 11 848 individuals. Median age at registry entry was 9·6 years (IQR 5·8-13·2). 10 099 (89·9%) of 11 235 included individuals had a final genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia and 1136 (10·1%) had a clinical diagnosis. Genetically confirmed diagnosis data or clinical diagnosis data were missing for 613 (5·2%) of 11 848 individuals. Genetic diagnosis was more common in children and adolescents from high-income countries (9427 [92·4%] of 10 202) than in children and adolescents from non-high-income countries (199 [48·0%] of 415). 3414 (31·6%) of 10 804 children or adolescents were index cases. Familial-hypercholesterolaemia-related physical signs, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease were uncommon, but were more common in non-high-income countries. 7557 (72·4%) of 10 428 included children or adolescents were not taking lipid-lowering medication (LLM) and had a median LDL-C of 5·00 mmol/L (IQR 4·05-6·08). Compared with genetic diagnosis, the use of unadapted clinical criteria intended for use in adults and reliant on more extreme phenotypes could result in 50-75% of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia not being identified. Interpretation: Clinical characteristics observed in adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia are uncommon in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia, hence detection in this age group relies on measurement of LDL-C and genetic confirmation. Where genetic testing is unavailable, increased availability and use of LDL-C measurements in the first few years of life could help reduce the current gap between prevalence and detection, enabling increased use of combination LLM to reach recommended LDL-C targets early in life

    Why should clinical practitioners ask about their patients’ concerns about falling?

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    Concerns (or ‘fears’) about falling (CaF) are common in older adults. As part of the ‘World Falls Guidelines Working Group on Concerns about Falling’, we recommended that clinicians working in falls prevention services should regularly assess CaF. Here, we expand upon these recommendations and argue that CaF can be both ‘adaptive’ and ‘maladaptive’ with respect to falls risk. On the one hand, high CaF can lead to overly cautious or hypervigilant behaviours that increase the risk of falling, and may also cause undue activity restriction (‘maladaptive CaF’). But concerns can also encourage individuals to make appropriate modifications to their behaviour to maximise safety (‘adaptive CaF’). We discuss this paradox and argue that high CaF—irrespective of whether ‘adaptive’ or ‘maladaptive’—should be considered an indication that ‘something is not right’, and that is represents an opportunity for clinical engagement. We also highlight how CaF can be maladaptive in terms of inappropriately high confidence about one’s balance. We present different routes for clinical intervention based on the types of concerns disclosed

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents from 48 countries: a cross-sectional study

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    Background Approximately 450 000 children are born with familial hypercholesterolaemia worldwide every year, yet only 2·1% of adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia were diagnosed before age 18 years via current diagnostic approaches, which are derived from observations in adults. We aimed to characterise children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and understand current approaches to the identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia to inform future public health strategies. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we assessed children and adolescents younger than 18 years with a clinical or genetic diagnosis of HeFH at the time of entry into the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) registry between Oct 1, 2015, and Jan 31, 2021. Data in the registry were collected from 55 regional or national registries in 48 countries. Diagnoses relying on self-reported history of familial hypercholesterolaemia and suspected secondary hypercholesterolaemia were excluded from the registry; people with untreated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of at least 13·0 mmol/L were excluded from this study. Data were assessed overall and by WHO region, World Bank country income status, age, diagnostic criteria, and index-case status. The main outcome of this study was to assess current identification and management of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Findings Of 63 093 individuals in the FHSC registry, 11 848 (18·8%) were children or adolescents younger than 18 years with HeFH and were included in this study; 5756 (50·2%) of 11 476 included individuals were female and 5720 (49·8%) were male. Sex data were missing for 372 (3·1%) of 11 848 individuals. Median age at registry entry was 9·6 years (IQR 5·8–13·2). 10 099 (89·9%) of 11 235 included individuals had a final genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia and 1136 (10·1%) had a clinical diagnosis. Genetically confirmed diagnosis data or clinical diagnosis data were missing for 613 (5·2%) of 11 848 individuals. Genetic diagnosis was more common in children and adolescents from high-income countries (9427 [92·4%] of 10 202) than in children and adolescents from non-high-income countries (199 [48·0%] of 415). 3414 (31·6%) of 10 804 children or adolescents were index cases. Familial-hypercholesterolaemia-related physical signs, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease were uncommon, but were more common in non-high-income countries. 7557 (72·4%) of 10 428 included children or adolescents were not taking lipid-lowering medication (LLM) and had a median LDL-C of 5·00 mmol/L (IQR 4·05–6·08). Compared with genetic diagnosis, the use of unadapted clinical criteria intended for use in adults and reliant on more extreme phenotypes could result in 50–75% of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia not being identified. Interpretation Clinical characteristics observed in adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia are uncommon in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia, hence detection in this age group relies on measurement of LDL-C and genetic confirmation. Where genetic testing is unavailable, increased availability and use of LDL-C measurements in the first few years of life could help reduce the current gap between prevalence and detection, enabling increased use of combination LLM to reach recommended LDL-C targets early in life. Funding Pfizer, Amgen, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Sanofi–Aventis, Daiichi Sankyo, and Regeneron

    Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in humans with alternative NF-κB pathway deficiency

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    Worldwide experience of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: retrospective cohort study

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    Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare inherited disorder resulting in extremely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Current guidance about its management and prognosis stems from small studies, mostly from high-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and genetic characteristics, as well as the impact, of current practice on health outcomes of HoFH patients globally. Methods The HoFH International Clinical Collaborators registry collected data on patients with a clinical, or genetic, or both, diagnosis of HoFH using a retrospective cohort study design. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04815005. Findings Overall, 751 patients from 38 countries were included, with 565 (75%) reporting biallelic pathogenic variants. The median age of diagnosis was 12·0 years (IQR 5·5–27·0) years. Of the 751 patients, 389 (52%) were female and 362 (48%) were male. Race was reported for 527 patients; 338 (64%) patients were White, 121 (23%) were Asian, and 68 (13%) were Black or mixed race. The major manifestations of ASCVD or aortic stenosis were already present in 65 (9%) of patients at diagnosis of HoFH. Globally, pretreatment LDL cholesterol levels were 14·7 mmol/L (IQR 11·6–18·4). Among patients with detailed therapeutic information, 491 (92%) of 534 received statins, 342 (64%) of 534 received ezetimibe, and 243 (39%) of 621 received lipoprotein apheresis. On-treatment LDL cholesterol levels were lower in high-income countries (3·93 mmol/L, IQR 2·6–5·8) versus non-high-income countries (9·3 mmol/L, 6·7–12·7), with greater use of three or more lipid-lowering therapies (LLT; high-income 66% vs non-high-income 24%) and consequently more patients attaining guideline-recommended LDL cholesterol goals (high-income 21% vs non-high-income 3%). A first major adverse cardiovascular event occurred a decade earlier in non-high-income countries, at a median age of 24·5 years (IQR 17·0–34·5) versus 37·0 years (29·0–49·0) in high-income countries (adjusted hazard ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·13–2·38). Interpretation Worldwide, patients with HoFH are diagnosed too late, undertreated, and at high premature ASCVD risk. Greater use of multi-LLT regimens is associated with lower LDL cholesterol levels and better outcomes. Significant global disparities exist in treatment regimens, control of LDL cholesterol levels, and cardiovascular event-free survival, which demands a critical re-evaluation of global health policy to reduce inequalities and improve outcomes for all patients with HoFH. Funding Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location Academic Medical Center; Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; and European Atherosclerosis Societ

    Worldwide experience of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: retrospective cohort study

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    Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolaemia International Clinical Collaborators: Tycho R Tromp, Merel L Hartgers, G Kees Hovingh, Antonio J Vallejo-Vaz, Kausik K Ray, Handrean Soran, Tomas Freiberger, Stefano A Bertolini, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Jing Pang, Gerald F Watts, Susanne Greber-Platzer, Martin Mäser, Thomas M Stulnig, Christoph F Ebenbichler, Khalid Bin Thani, David Cassiman, Olivier S Descamps, Daisy Rymen, Peter Witters, Raul D Santos, Liam R Brunham, Gordon A Francis, Jacques Genest, Robert A Hegele, Brooke A Kennedy, Isabelle Ruel, Mark H Sherman, Long Jiang, Luya Wang, Željko Reiner, Vladimir Blaha, Richard Ceska, Jana Dvorakova, Lubomir Dlouhy, Pavel Horak, Vladimir Soska, Lukas Tichy, Robin Urbanek, Helena Vaverkova, Michal Vrablik, Stanislav Zemek, Lukas Zlatohlavek, Sameh Emil, Tarek Naguib, Ashraf Reda, Sophie Béliard, Eric Bruckert, Antonio Gallo, Moses S Elisaf, Genovefa Kolovou, Hofit Cohen, Ronen Durst, Eldad J Dann, Avishay Elis, Osama Hussein, Eran Leitersdorf, Daniel Schurr, Nitika Setia, Ishwar C Verma, Mohammed D Alareedh, Mutaz Al-Khnifsawi, Ali F Abdalsahib Al-Zamili, Sabah H Rhadi, Foaad K Shaghee, Marcello Arca, Maurizio Averna, Andrea Bartuli, Marco Bucci, Paola S Buonuomo, Paolo Calabrò, Sebastiano Calandra, Manuela Casula, Alberico L Catapano, Angelo B Cefalù, Arrigo F G Cicero, Sergio D'Addato, Laura D'Erasmo, Alessia Di Costanzo, Tommaso Fasano, Marta Gazzotti, Antonina Giammanco, Gabriella Iannuzzo, Anastasia Ibba, Emanuele A Negri, Andrea Pasta, Chiara Pavanello, Livia Pisciotta, Claudio Rabacchi, Carlo Ripoli, Tiziana Sampietro, Francesco Sbrana, Fulvio Sileo, Patrizia Suppressa, Patrizia Tarugi, Chiara Trenti, Maria G Zenti, Mika Hori, Mahmoud H Ayesh, Sami T Azar, Fadi F Bitar, Akl C Fahed, Elie M Moubarak, Georges Nemer, Hapizah M Nawawi, Ramón Madriz, Roopa Mehta, Arjen J Cupido, Joep C Defesche, M Doortje Reijman, Jeanine E Roeters-van Lennep, Erik S G Stroes, Albert Wiegman, Linda Zuurbier, Khalid Al-Waili, Fouzia Sadiq, Krzysztof Chlebus, Mafalda Bourbon, Isabel M Gaspar, Katarina S Lalic, Marat V Ezhov, Andrey V Susekov, Urh Groselj, Min-Ji Charng, Weerapan Khovidhunkit, Melih Aktan, Bulent B Altunkeser, Sinan Demircioglu, Melis Kose, Cumali Gokce, Osman Ilhan, Meral Kayikcioglu, Leyla G Kaynar, Irfan Kuku, Erdal Kurtoglu, Harika Okutan, Osman I Ozcebe, Zafer Pekkolay, Saim Sag, Osman Z Salcioglu, Ahmet Temizhan, Mustafa Yenercag, Mehmet Yilmaz, Hamiyet Yilmaz Yasar, Olena Mitchenko, Alexander R M Lyons, Christophe A T Stevens, Julie A Brothers, Lisa C Hudgins, Christina Nguyen, Rano Alieva, Aleksandr Shek, Doan-Loi Do, Ngoc-Thanh Kim, Hong-An Le, Thanh-Tung Le, Mai-Ngoc T Nguyen, Thanh-Huong Truong, Dirk J Blom, Frederick J Raal, Marina Cuchel.Background: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare inherited disorder resulting in extremely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Current guidance about its management and prognosis stems from small studies, mostly from high-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and genetic characteristics, as well as the impact, of current practice on health outcomes of HoFH patients globally. Methods: The HoFH International Clinical Collaborators registry collected data on patients with a clinical, or genetic, or both, diagnosis of HoFH using a retrospective cohort study design. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04815005. Findings: Overall, 751 patients from 38 countries were included, with 565 (75%) reporting biallelic pathogenic variants. The median age of diagnosis was 12·0 years (IQR 5·5-27·0) years. Of the 751 patients, 389 (52%) were female and 362 (48%) were male. Race was reported for 527 patients; 338 (64%) patients were White, 121 (23%) were Asian, and 68 (13%) were Black or mixed race. The major manifestations of ASCVD or aortic stenosis were already present in 65 (9%) of patients at diagnosis of HoFH. Globally, pretreatment LDL cholesterol levels were 14·7 mmol/L (IQR 11·6-18·4). Among patients with detailed therapeutic information, 491 (92%) of 534 received statins, 342 (64%) of 534 received ezetimibe, and 243 (39%) of 621 received lipoprotein apheresis. On-treatment LDL cholesterol levels were lower in high-income countries (3·93 mmol/L, IQR 2·6-5·8) versus non-high-income countries (9·3 mmol/L, 6·7-12·7), with greater use of three or more lipid-lowering therapies (LLT; high-income 66% vs non-high-income 24%) and consequently more patients attaining guideline-recommended LDL cholesterol goals (high-income 21% vs non-high-income 3%). A first major adverse cardiovascular event occurred a decade earlier in non-high-income countries, at a median age of 24·5 years (IQR 17·0-34·5) versus 37·0 years (29·0-49·0) in high-income countries (adjusted hazard ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·13-2·38). Interpretation: Worldwide, patients with HoFH are diagnosed too late, undertreated, and at high premature ASCVD risk. Greater use of multi-LLT regimens is associated with lower LDL cholesterol levels and better outcomes. Significant global disparities exist in treatment regimens, control of LDL cholesterol levels, and cardiovascular event-free survival, which demands a critical re-evaluation of global health policy to reduce inequalities and improve outcomes for all patients with HoFH.Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location Academic Medical Center; Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; and European Atherosclerosis Society.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The time is now: Achieving FH paediatric screening across Europe - The Prague Declaration

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    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common inherited metabolic disorder characterized by high cholesterol and if left untreated leads to premature cardiovascular disease, such as heart attacks. Treatment that begins early in life, particularly in childhood, is highly efficacious in preventing cardiovascular disease and cost-effective, thus early detection of FH is crucial. However, in Europe, less than 10% of people living with FH are diagnosed and even less receive life-saving treatment. The Prague Declaration is a call to action for national and European Union policymakers and decision-makers and a result of the Czech EU Presidency meeting on FH Paediatric Screening (early detection of inherited high cholesterol) at the Czech Senate in Prague on 6th September 2022. It builds on a considerable body of evidence which was discussed at the Technical Meeting under the auspices of the Slovenian EU Presidency in October 2021. The Prague meeting addressed the outstanding barriers to the systematic implementation of FH paediatric screening across Europe. In this article, we present the key points from the Prague meeting and concrete actions needed to move forward

    Worldwide experience of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: retrospective cohort study

    No full text
    Background: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare inherited disorder resulting in extremely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Current guidance about its management and prognosis stems from small studies, mostly from high-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and genetic characteristics, as well as the impact, of current practice on health outcomes of HoFH patients globally. Methods: The HoFH International Clinical Collaborators registry collected data on patients with a clinical, or genetic, or both, diagnosis of HoFH using a retrospective cohort study design. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04815005. Findings: Overall, 751 patients from 38 countries were included, with 565 (75%) reporting biallelic pathogenic variants. The median age of diagnosis was 12·0 years (IQR 5·5–27·0) years. Of the 751 patients, 389 (52%) were female and 362 (48%) were male. Race was reported for 527 patients; 338 (64%) patients were White, 121 (23%) were Asian, and 68 (13%) were Black or mixed race. The major manifestations of ASCVD or aortic stenosis were already present in 65 (9%) of patients at diagnosis of HoFH. Globally, pretreatment LDL cholesterol levels were 14·7 mmol/L (IQR 11·6–18·4). Among patients with detailed therapeutic information, 491 (92%) of 534 received statins, 342 (64%) of 534 received ezetimibe, and 243 (39%) of 621 received lipoprotein apheresis. On-treatment LDL cholesterol levels were lower in high-income countries (3·93 mmol/L, IQR 2·6–5·8) versus non-high-income countries (9·3 mmol/L, 6·7–12·7), with greater use of three or more lipid-lowering therapies (LLT; high-income 66% vs non-high-income 24%) and consequently more patients attaining guideline-recommended LDL cholesterol goals (high-income 21% vs non-high-income 3%). A first major adverse cardiovascular event occurred a decade earlier in non-high-income countries, at a median age of 24·5 years (IQR 17·0–34·5) versus 37·0 years (29·0–49·0) in high-income countries (adjusted hazard ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·13–2·38). Interpretation: Worldwide, patients with HoFH are diagnosed too late, undertreated, and at high premature ASCVD risk. Greater use of multi-LLT regimens is associated with lower LDL cholesterol levels and better outcomes. Significant global disparities exist in treatment regimens, control of LDL cholesterol levels, and cardiovascular event-free survival, which demands a critical re-evaluation of global health policy to reduce inequalities and improve outcomes for all patients with HoFH. Funding: Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location Academic Medical Center; Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; and European Atherosclerosis Societ

    PAEDIATRIC FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA SCREENING IN EUROPE - PUBLIC POLICY BACKGROUND AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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    International audienceFamilial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is under-recognized and under-treated in Europe leading to significantly higher risk for premature heart disease in those affected. As treatment beginning early in life is highly effective in preventing heart disease and cost-effective in these patients, screening for FH is crucial. It has therefore now been recognized by the European Commission Public Health Best Practice Portal as an effective strategy. Model programmes exist in Europe to identify young individuals with FH, which are based on cascade screening of first-degree relatives of affected individuals, universal screening for high cholesterol, opportunistic screening of high-risk individuals, or a combination of the above approaches. Recommendations presented herein to improve identification of FH emphasize that every country should have an FH screening programme. These programmes should be adapted from existing strategies to best fit the individual country's healthcare system, governments should provide financial support for these programmes and related care, and further research to optimize care and implementations should be conducted
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