99 research outputs found

    Transient Experimental and 3D-FSI Investigation of Flapper Valve Dynamics for Refrigerant Compressors

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    The design of the valves for refrigerant compressors has a distinct influence on the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. In order to predict the valve behavior for compressor optimization, flow characteristics and valve system dynamics are key factors. State of the art valve model approaches have to date ignored the retainer deflection and the influence of contact effects on fluid-structure interaction behavior. With this fact in mind, experimental valve lift investigations by means of laser vibrometry measurements were performed. In order to determine dynamic flapper valve characteristics, oscillation frequency analyses and numerical natural frequency analyses for free oscillation of the flapper valve were carried out. Additionally this paper presents an extended three-dimensional numerical discharge valve model containing a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach. The two-way mechanical coupling is carried out by a commercial CFD code combined with a commercial FEA package. The numerical results are validated using the presented experimental transient results and compared to a lumped 1D valve model. The numerical 3D-FSI results show good agreement with the experimental results and allow for further investigations of multiphysics phenomena such as adhesive effects on the flapper valve

    Adult Osteosclerotic Metaphyseal Dysplasia With Progressive Osteonecrosis of the Jaws and Abnormal Bone Resorption Pattern Due to a LRRK1 Splice Site Mutation

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    Osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia (OSMD) is a rare autosomal recessive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia. We report on a 34-year-old patient with sandwich vertebrae, platyspondyly, osteosclerosis of the tubular bones, pathologic fractures, and anemia. In the third decade, he developed osteonecrosis of the jaws, which was progressive in spite of repeated surgical treatment over a period of 11 years. An iliac crest bone biopsy revealed the presence of hypermineralized cartilage remnants, large multinucleated osteoclasts with abnormal morphology, and inadequate bone resorption typical for osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis. After exclusion of mutations in TCIRG1 and CLCN7 we performed trio-based exome sequencing. The novel homozygous splice-site mutation c.261G>A in the gene LRRK1 was found and co-segregated with the phenotype in the family. cDNA sequencing showed nearly complete skipping of exon 3 leading to a frameshift (p.Ala34Profs*33). Osteoclasts differentiated from the patient's peripheral blood monocytes were extremely large. Instead of resorption pits these cells were only capable of superficial erosion. Phosphorylation of L-plastin at position Ser5 was strongly reduced in patient-derived osteoclasts showing a loss of function of the mutated LRRK1 kinase protein. Our analysis indicates a strong overlap of LRRK1-related OSMD with other forms of intermediate osteopetrosis, but an exceptional abnormality of osteoclast resorption. Like in other osteoclast pathologies an increased risk for progressive osteonecrosis of the jaws should be considered in OSMD, an intermediate form of osteopetrosis

    TERT Promoter Mutation Detection in Cell-Free Tumor-Derived DNA in Patients with IDH Wild-Type Glioblastomas: A Pilot Prospective Study

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    Purpose: We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility and the potential implications of detecting TERT promoter (TERTp)–mutant cell-free tumor-derived DNA (tDNA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of glioblastoma patients. Experimental Design: Matched CSF and plasma samples were collected in 60 patients with glial tumors. The CSF collection was obtained during surgery, before any surgical manipulation of the tumor. The extracted tDNA and corresponding tumor DNA samples were analyzed for TERTp and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) hotspot mutations. In addition, the variant allele frequency (VAF) of TERTp mutation in the CSF-tDNA was correlated with tumor features and patients’ outcome. Results: Thirty-eight patients had TERTp-mutant/IDH wild-type glioblastomas. The matched TERTp mutation in the CSF-tDNA was successfully detected with 100% specificity (95% CI, 87.6–100%) and 92.1% sensitivity (95% CI, 78.6–98.3%) (n = 35/38). In contrast, the sensitivity in the plasma-tDNA was far lower [n = 3/38, 7.9% (95% CI, 1.6–21.4%)]. We concordantly observed a longer overall survival of patients with low VAF in the CSF-tDNA when compared with patients with high VAF, irrespective of using the lower quartile VAF [11.45%; 14.0 mo. (95% confidence interval, CI, 10.3–17.6) vs. 8.6 mo. (95% CI, 4.1–13.2), P = 0.035], the lower third VAF [13%; 15.4 mo. (95% CI, 11.6–19.2) vs. 8.3 mo. (95% CI, 2.3–14.4), P = 0.008], or the median VAF [20.3%; 14.0 mo. (95% CI, 9.2–18.7) vs. 8.6 mo. (95% CI, 7.5–9.8), P = 0.062] to dichotomize the patients. Conclusions: This pilot study highlights the value of CSF-tDNA for an accurate and reliable detection of TERTp mutations. Furthermore, our findings suggest that high TERTp mutation VAF levels in the CSF-tDNA may represent a suitable predictor of poor survival in glioblastoma patients. Further studies are needed to complement the findings of our exploratory analysis

    The oestrogen receptor alpha-regulated lncRNA NEAT1 is a critical modulator of prostate cancer

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    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in establishing an oncogenic cascade that drives prostate cancer progression. Some prostate cancers escape androgen dependence and are often associated with an aggressive phenotype. The oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is expressed in prostate cancers, independent of AR status. However, the role of ERα remains elusive. Using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA-sequencing data, we identified an ERα-specific non-coding transcriptome signature. Among putatively ERα-regulated intergenic long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), we identified nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) as the most significantly overexpressed lncRNA in prostate cancer. Analysis of two large clinical cohorts also revealed that NEAT1 expression is associated with prostate cancer progression. Prostate cancer cells expressing high levels of NEAT1 were recalcitrant to androgen or AR antagonists. Finally, we provide evidence that NEAT1 drives oncogenic growth by altering the epigenetic landscape of target gene promoters to favour transcription

    GWTC-1: A Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog of Compact Binary Mergers Observed by LIGO and Virgo during the First and Second Observing Runs

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    We present the results from three gravitational-wave searches for coalescing compact binaries with component masses above 1 Maℱ during the first and second observing runs of the advanced gravitational-wave detector network. During the first observing run (O1), from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, gravitational waves from three binary black hole mergers were detected. The second observing run (O2), which ran from November 30, 2016 to August 25, 2017, saw the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral, in addition to the observation of gravitational waves from a total of seven binary black hole mergers, four of which we report here for the first time: GW170729, GW170809, GW170818, and GW170823. For all significant gravitational-wave events, we provide estimates of the source properties. The detected binary black holes have total masses between 18.6-0.7+3.2 Mñℱ and 84.4-11.1+15.8 Mñℱ and range in distance between 320-110+120 and 2840-1360+1400 Mpc. No neutron star-black hole mergers were detected. In addition to highly significant gravitational-wave events, we also provide a list of marginal event candidates with an estimated false-alarm rate less than 1 per 30 days. From these results over the first two observing runs, which include approximately one gravitational-wave detection per 15 days of data searched, we infer merger rates at the 90% confidence intervals of 110-3840 Gpc-3 y-1 for binary neutron stars and 9.7-101 Gpc-3 y-1 for binary black holes assuming fixed population distributions and determine a neutron star-black hole merger rate 90% upper limit of 610 Gpc-3 y-1. © 2019 authors. Published by the American Physical Society

    ECMO for COVID-19 patients in Europe and Israel

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    Since March 15th, 2020, 177 centres from Europe and Israel have joined the study, routinely reporting on the ECMO support they provide to COVID-19 patients. The mean annual number of cases treated with ECMO in the participating centres before the pandemic (2019) was 55. The number of COVID-19 patients has increased rapidly each week reaching 1531 treated patients as of September 14th. The greatest number of cases has been reported from France (n = 385), UK (n = 193), Germany (n = 176), Spain (n = 166), and Italy (n = 136) .The mean age of treated patients was 52.6 years (range 16–80), 79% were male. The ECMO configuration used was VV in 91% of cases, VA in 5% and other in 4%. The mean PaO2 before ECMO implantation was 65 mmHg. The mean duration of ECMO support thus far has been 18 days and the mean ICU length of stay of these patients was 33 days. As of the 14th September, overall 841 patients have been weaned from ECMO support, 601 died during ECMO support, 71 died after withdrawal of ECMO, 79 are still receiving ECMO support and for 10 patients status n.a. . Our preliminary data suggest that patients placed on ECMO with severe refractory respiratory or cardiac failure secondary to COVID-19 have a reasonable (55%) chance of survival. Further extensive data analysis is expected to provide invaluable information on the demographics, severity of illness, indications and different ECMO management strategies in these patients

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∌99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∌1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead
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