89 research outputs found

    Malaria Epidemiology and COVID-19 Pandemic:Are They Interrelated?

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    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease, impacting multiple organs in the human body. But COVID-19 also impacts other diseases of relevance to public and planetary health. To understand and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, we need an intersectional conceptual lens and systems thinking. For example, the strain on health care systems due to COVID-19 has adversely impacted global malaria elimination programs. With many epidemiological, clinical, and biological parallels documented, we examined in this study the scenario of malaria and COVID-19 syndemic in India. The disruptive influence of COVID-19 on the National Framework for Malaria Elimination (NFME), impact of unintended chemoprophylaxis, population genetic influences, and the shifting patterns of epidemiology are compared. Importantly, a time series analysis forecasted the burden of malaria increasing in the upcoming years. Although reported malaria cases showed a decline in 2020 compared to the previous years, an increase in cases was documented in 2021, with nine states reporting an increase up to July 2021. Pandemics often cause crosscutting disruptions in health care. Reshaping the priorities of the malaria elimination program and a diligent implementation of the priorities in the NFME would, therefore, be well-advised: (1) vector control, (2) antimalarial therapy recommendations, (3) monitoring drug resistance, (4) prevention of the spread of asymptomatic disease-causing low-density transmission, and (5) large-scale testing measures. In conclusion, the findings from the present study inform future comparative studies in other world regions to better understand the broader, systemic, temporal, and spatial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on existing and future diseases across public health systems and services

    The genome trilogy of Anopheles stephensi, an urban malaria vector, reveals structure of a locus associated with adaptation to environmental heterogeneity.

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    Anopheles stephensi is the most menacing malaria vector to watch for in newly urbanising parts of the world. Its fitness is reported to be a direct consequence of the vector adapting to laying eggs in over-head water tanks with street-side water puddles polluted by oil and sewage. Large frequent inversions in the genome of malaria vectors are implicated in adaptation. We report the genome assembly of a strain of An. stephensi of the type-form, collected from a construction site from Chennai (IndCh) in 2016. The genome reported here with a L50 of 4, completes the trilogy of high-resolution genomes of strains with respect to a 16.5 Mbp 2Rb genotype in An. stephensi known to be associated with adaptation to environmental heterogeneity. Unlike the reported genomes of two other strains, STE2 (2R+b/2Rb) and UCI (2Rb/2Rb), IndCh is found to be homozygous for the standard form (2R+b/2R+b). Comparative genome analysis revealed base-level details of the breakpoints and allowed extraction of 22,650 segregating SNPs for typing this inversion in populations. Whole genome sequencing of 82 individual mosquitoes from diverse geographical locations reveal that one third of both wild and laboratory populations maintain the heterozygous genotype of 2Rb. The large number of SNPs can be tailored to 1740 exonic SNPs enabling genotyping directly from transcriptome sequencing. The genome trilogy approach accelerated the study of fine structure and typing of an important inversion in An. stephensi, putting the genome resources for this understudied species on par with the extensively studied malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. We argue that the IndCh genome is relevant for field translation work compared to those reported earlier by showing that individuals from diverse geographical locations cluster with IndCh, pointing to significant convergence resulting from travel and commerce between cities, perhaps, contributing to the survival of the fittest strain

    Effect on the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Antiferromagnetic Topological Insulator MnBi2_2Te4_4 with Sn Doping

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    We thoroughly investigate the effect of nonmagnetic Sn doping on the electronic and magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic topological insulator MnBi2_2Te4_4. We observe that Sn doping reduces the out-of-plane antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions in MnBi2_2Te4_4 up to 68\% of Sn concentration and above the system is found to be paramagnetic. In this way, the anomalous Hall effect observed at a very high field of 7.8 T in MnBi2_2Te4_4 is reduced to 2 T with 68\% of Sn doping. Electrical transport measurements suggest that all compositions are metallic in nature, while the low-temperature resistivity is sensitive to the AFM ordering and to the doping-induced disorder. Hall effect study demonstrates that Sn actually dopes electrons into the system, thus, enhancing the electron carrier density almost by two orders at 68\% of Sn. In contrast, SnBi2_2Te4_4 is found to be a p-type system. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies show that the topological properties are intact at least up to 55\% of Sn as the Dirac surface states are present in the valance band, but in SnBi2_2Te4_4 we are unable to detect the topological states due to heavy hole doping. Overall, Sn doping significantly affects the electronic and magnetic properties of MnBi2_2Te4_4.Comment: 8 pages and 6 figure

    Abstracts of National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020

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    This book presents the abstracts of the papers presented to the Online National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020 (RDMPMC-2020) held on 26th and 27th August 2020 organized by the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Science in Association with the Department of Production and Industrial Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India. Conference Title: National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020Conference Acronym: RDMPMC-2020Conference Date: 26–27 August 2020Conference Location: Online (Virtual Mode)Conference Organizer: Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology JamshedpurCo-organizer: Department of Production and Industrial Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, IndiaConference Sponsor: TEQIP-

    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)

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    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field

    A renewed way of malaria control in Karnataka, South India LARVAL SOURCE MANNGEMENT

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    Larval source management (LSM) in vector control has not got much importance due to various factors. The major reason was the lack of confidence in employing at the grass root level. In rural settings, besides scattered human settlements, there are vast breeding habitats of mosquitoes. In the beginning of the twentieth century, LSM was the only method of vector management, and got less importance after the arrival of DDT. It lasted for almost four decades, and it was realized the need of the alternate strategy when there was a resurgence of malaria in the mid 1970s. Even today LSM has received a low profile in vector management. Fillinger and Lindsay (2011) have given a detailed account on the use of this strategy, and pointed out that most of the developed nations are using this strategy to manage mosquito control. They questioned why this strategy has not got due importance in the African countries where the real problems exist

    Predatory behaviour of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a mosquito control context:The importance of social and habitat factors

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    It is vital to consider behaviour when selecting an appropriate biological control agent, as behaviour can affect both the likelihood of the agent successfully controlling the target organism, and the chance of inadvertent negative effects on native ecosystems. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, have been introduced widely outside of their native range for mosquito control, yet very little is known about their feeding decisions when more than one prey species is present, and how these decisions are mediated by social and physical aspects of the foraging environment. We investigated female guppy foraging behaviour in a two-prey system (Anopheles and Culex mosquito larvae). When feeding alone, female guppies displayed a preference for Culex larvae. However, the extent of preference was significantly affected by both the presence of conspecifics and cover, in a non-additive manner. This suggests that the presence of alternative prey will influence the effectiveness of guppies in biological control, as well as their potential ecological impact. The exact nature of this influence depends on the interaction between social and habitat factors.</p

    Malaria elimination in India—The way forward

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    The World Malaria Report 2018 published by the World Health Organization highlights that no significant progress in reducing global malaria cases was achieved for the period 2015–2017. India carries 4% of the global malaria burden and contributes 87% of the total malaria cases in South-East Asia. India is in malaria elimination mode, and set targets for malaria-free status by 2030. Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic falciparum malaria cases continues to be a challenge for health care providers. To overcome these hurdles innovative solutions along with the existing tools and strategies involving vector control, mass drug administration, disease surveillance hold the key to solve this gigantic health problem