23 research outputs found

    Estimation of Sensor-based site specific variable rate fertilizer application for maize (Zea mays L.) crop

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    Optical spectrometry sensors in crops offer a remarkable technological breakthrough in the field of variable-rate nitrogen fertilization. A field study was conducted during rainy (kharif) season of 2021 at the research farm of the Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore to estimate maize crop nitrogen (N), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) value and chlorophyll content in hybrid maize COH (M) 8. Fertilizers were administered to the plots following the recommendations (250:75:75 kg NPK ha-1) given under Soil Test Crop Response, with a goal yield of 9t ha-1 predicted based on the initial soil available N, P, and K values. The experimental findings revealed a significant impact of nitrogen rate (P<0.001) on the percentage of nitrogen content in the leaves (% N leaf content). Additionally, there was a decrease in maize leaf chlorophyll content index over time, with ranges of 32.96 to 50.57, 28.78 to 41.78, 24.81 to 35.86, 22.12 to 28.54, and 14.34 to 20.56. On the contrary, the NDVI experienced an increase throughout the season, with ranges of 0.32 to 0.49, 0.30 to 0.55, 0.28 to 0.66, 0.46 to 0.88, and 0.56 to 0.84. The study will help foster sustainability within modern intensive farming practices by emphasizing the importance of reducing environmental pollution caused by applying Sensor-based site-specific nitrogen fertilizer for maize crop

    Larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant and antifungal, antioxidant activities of Mentha spicata (Lamiaceae) root extracts

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    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal effects of 10 solvent extracts of Mentha spicata root.Methods: Ten solvent extracts were investigated for their total flavonoid and phenolic content and screened for larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal activities. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method, while total flavonoid content was determined by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric assay. Four solvents extracts were screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, recultured Cryptococcus neoformans, and Microsporum audouinii using the agar diffusion method. The nematicidal activity of the compounds was evaluated against the juvenile Meloidogyne javanica organism, while larvicidal properties were evaluated against the urban mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus using a standard bioassay protocol. The antifeedant activity of marine acclimated Oreochromis mossambicus was used for evaluating ichthyotoxic potential.Results: The total flavonoid content in the extracts ranged from 18.5 to 83.4 mg/g, and the amount of free phenolic compounds ranged from 14.7 to 91.9 mg/g of extract powder. The water extract of these plants exhibited significant antioxidant activity and significant levels of phenolics and flavonoids. The water extract exhibited higher larvicidal (LD50 = 11.77 μg/mL), nematicidal (LD50 = 11.78 μg/mL), antifeedant (LD50 > 40 μg/mL), and antifungal activities (minimum inhibitory concentration: 16 μg/mL) against M. audouinii compared with the other extracts.Conclusion: These results show that the water extract of Mentha spicata may be used as a potential natural alternative source of nutritional and pharmaceutical ingredients.Keywords: Mentha spicata, Larvicidal, Nematicidal, Antifeedant and Antifungal activities, Nutritional supplement, Pharmaceutical ingredient

    Influence of the downwash airflow in Hexacopter Drone on the spray distribution pattern of boom sprayer

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    The spray characteristics of drone sprayers are significantly influenced by the downwash airflow produced by Drone multi-rotors. The present study aimed to study the influence of downwash airflow and the operational parameters of Drone sprayer, viz., flight height, travel speed, rotor configuration, payload and wind velocity on the spray distribution pattern for boom sprayer attachment to Drone. The boom type sprayer consisted of four numbers of flat fan nozzles placed at three different spacing viz., 30, 45 and 60 cm between each nozzle. The spray distribution pattern of the Hexacopter Drone was studied at three different operating pressures, viz., 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kg cm-2. A spray patternator of 5 m x 5 m was developed per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) standard to study the spray uniformity of volume distribution pattern. The best spray uniformity was found as 0.37 % CV value at 60 cm nozzle spacing and 4 kg cm-2 operating pressure. The optimised parameters viz., 60 cm of nozzle spacing and 4 kg cm-2 operating pressure, the influence of downwash airflow on the spray volume distribution of hexacopter Drone with boom spray attachment were studied. The Drone hovered at three different heights, viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 m from the top of the patternator and spray operating pressure was maintained at 4 kg cm-2. It was observed that less volume of spray was collected at the middle portion when the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was hovered at 1.0 m height due to the direct impact of downwash airflow of rotors. The uniform spray volume distribution pattern was observed when Drone hovered from 1.0 m to 3.0 m height. A round vertex pattern of spray pattern was generated with boom type nozzles configuration due to the direct impact of downwash airflow of rotors. This study will be helpful in the configuration of nozzles attached to the drone sprayers, optimization of spray operational parameters, and revealing spray volume distribution pattern

    T cell Allorecognition Pathways in Solid Organ Transplantation

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    Transplantation is unusual in that T cells can recognize alloantigen by at least two distinct pathways: as intact MHC alloantigen on the surface of donor cells via the direct pathway; and as self-restricted processed alloantigen via the indirect pathway. Direct pathway responses are viewed as strong but short-lived and hence responsible for acute rejection, whereas indirect pathway responses are typically thought to be much longer lasting and mediate the progression of chronic rejection. However, this is based on surprisingly scant experimental evidence, and the recent demonstration that MHC alloantigen can be re-presented intact on recipient dendritic cells—the semi-direct pathway—suggests that the conventional view may be an oversimplification. We review recent advances in our understanding of how the different T cell allorecognition pathways are triggered, consider how this generates effector alloantibody and cytotoxic CD8 T cell alloresponses and assess how these responses contribute to early and late allograft rejection. We further discuss how this knowledge may inform development of cellular and pharmacological therapies that aim to improve transplant outcomes, with focus on the use of induced regulatory T cells with indirect allospecificity and on the development of immunometabolic strategies.KEY POINTSAcute allograft rejection is likely mediated by indirect and direct pathway CD4 T cell alloresponses.Chronic allograft rejection is largely mediated by indirect pathway CD4 T cell responses. Direct pathway recognition of cross-dressed endothelial derived MHC class II alloantigen may also contribute to chronic rejection, but the extent of this contribution is unknown.Late indirect pathway CD4 T cell responses will be composed of heterogeneous populations of allopeptide specific T helper cell subsets that recognize different alloantigens and are at various stages of effector and memory differentiation.Knowledge of the precise indirect pathway CD4 T cell responses active at late time points in a particular individual will likely inform the development of alloantigen-specific cellular therapies and will guide immunometabolic modulation

    Engineering hydrophobically modified chitosan for enhancing the dispersion of respirable microparticles of levofloxacin

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    The potential of amphiphilic chitosan formed by grafting octanoyl chains on the chitosan backbone for pulmonary delivery of levofloxacin has been studied. The success of polymer synthesis was confirmed using FT-IR and NMR, whilst antimicrobial activity was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Highly dispersible dry powders for delivery as aerosols were prepared with different amounts of chitosan and octanoyl chitosan to study the effect of hydrophobic modification and varying concentration of polymer on aerosolization of drug. Powders were prepared by spray-drying from an aqueous solution containing levofloxacin and chitosan/amphiphilic octanoyl chitosan. L-leucine was also used to assess its effect on aerosolization. Following spray-drying, the resultant powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering, HPLC, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. The in vitro aerosolization profile was determined using a Next Generation Impactor, whilst in vitro antimicrobial assessment was performed using MIC assay. Microparticles of chitosan have the property of mucoadhesion leading to potential increased residence time in the pulmonary mucus, making it important to test the toxicity of these formulations. In-vitro cytotoxicity evaluation using MTT assay was performed on A549 cell line to determine the toxicity of formulations and hence feasibility of use. The MTT assay confirmed that the polymers and the formulations were non-cytotoxic. Hydrophobically modifying chitosan showed significantly lower MIC (4-fold) than the commercial chitosan against P. aeruginosa. The powders generated were of suitable aerodynamic size for inhalation having a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 4.5 lm for formulations containing octanoyl chitosan. These highly dispersible powders have minimal moisture adsorption and hence an emitted dose of more than 90% and a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 52%. Powders with non-modified chitosan showed lower dispersibility, with an emitted dose of 72% and FPF of 20%, as a result of high moisture adsorption onto the chitosan matrix leading to cohesiveness and subsequently decreased dispersibility

    Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

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    Characterization of slug flow in horizontal channels

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    261-264A brief study of slug characteristics is reported here. The aim of the present working to perform in depth analysis of the characteristics of slug flow in horizontal channels. A brief explanation of the experimental set up with instrumentation is reviewed. The data reduction procedure is employed to obtain different characteristics by experimental set up and the corresponding results are also discussed

    Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of novel pyrimidine-2,4-dione connected with 2H-thiopyran derivatives

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    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to develop a new pyrimidine-2,4-dione hybrid with 2H-thiopyran molecules as a potential antibacterial and antifungal agents against clinical pathogens that cause infectious diseases, in addition to conducting the cytotoxic screening. Methods: The synthesis of 2H-thiopyran connecting pyrimidine-2,4-dionederivatives was carried out in a medium consisting of water with an Mg(II) acetate catalyst. The antimicrobial activity of all synthesized compounds was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923), Enterococcus faecalis (clinical isolate), and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Escherichia coli (ATCC-2522), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. Antifungal activity was examined in vitro using Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Microsporum audouinii, and Cryptococcus neoformans as test organisms (clinical isolates). Cytotoxic assay was also performed in vitro at various concentrations. Results: The highly active compound in this study was 3-((2,6-di(furan-2-yl)dihydro-2H-thiopyran-4(3H)-ylidene)amino)dihydropyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione which exhibited the lowest MIC value (8 µg/mL) with broad activity against one Gram-positive and three Gram-negative. The compound, 3-((2,6-di(furan-2-yl)dihydro-2H-thiopyran-4(3H)-ylidene)amino)dihydropyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione showed least MIC value (MIC: 0.25 µg/mL) against C. albicans. The compound 3-((2,6-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)dihydro-2H-thiopyran-4(3H)-ylidene)amino)dihydro pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione was highly active (GI50 0.03 µm) against HeLa cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The overall results indicated that a successful preparation of a few of the promising molecules, which are antimicrobials well as cytotoxicity has been achieved

    Larvicidal Activity of Geranylacetone Derivatives against Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae and Investigation of Environmental Toxicity and Non-Target Aquatic Species

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    A grindstone method based on Mannich condensation was used to synthesize geranylacetone derivatives (1a–1f). The method showed a high yield under milder reaction conditions. Analyses of the synthesized compounds were carried out by FTIR, 1H, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. We synthesized and evaluated the larvicidal and ichthyotoxic activities of six compounds (1a–1f) in this study. Compound 1f (5,9-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-(2-(3-phenylallylidene)hydrazinyl)deca-4,8-dien-1-one) was more active (LD50: 14.1 µg/mL) against the second instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus than geranylacetone (67.2 µg/mL), whereas the former caused 13.9% mortality at 100 µg/mL. Geranylacetone, in an antifeedant screening test, showed 53.1% against Oreochromis mossambicus within 24 h. The compound 1f showed high larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and was non-toxic to non-target aquatic species