287 research outputs found

    Contaminaci贸 atmosf猫rica i els seus efectes sobre la salut

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    Contaminaci贸n del aire y salud respiratoria en ni帽os

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    En marzo de 2014 la Organizaci贸n Mundial de la Salud (OMS) alertaba que la contaminaci贸n del aire, que incluye contaminantes como el material particulado (siglas PM en ingl茅s), el ozono (O3), el di贸xido de nitr贸geno (NO2) o el di贸xido de azufre (SO2), causa anualmente 3.7 millones muertes prematuras en todo el mundo. De hecho, la contaminaci贸n del aire, en concreto el material particulado, es la primera causa ambiental de muerte y enfermedad, y la novena causa absoluta por delante del colesterol o la falta de ejercicio f铆sico. En los 煤ltimos a帽os varios estudios sobre los efectos agudos y cr贸nicos de los contaminantes del aire han confirmado que el riesgo de padecer accidentes cerebrovasculares, cardiopat铆as, c谩ncer de pulm贸n, y enfermedades respiratorias cr贸nicas y agudas, incluyendo el asma, incrementa a mayor exposici贸n a estos contaminantes. Es m谩s, parece ser que no existe un umbral de seguridad y que incluso a exposiciones muy bajas ya podr铆a haber efectos en la salud

    ARIA 2016: Care pathways implementing emerging technologies for predictive medicine in rhinitis and asthma across the life cycle

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    The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative commenced during a World Health Organization workshop in 1999. The initial goals were (1) to propose a new allergic rhinitis classification, (2) to promote the concept of multi-morbidity in asthma and rhinitis and (3) to develop guidelines with all stakeholders that could be used globally for all countries and populations. ARIA鈥攄isseminated and implemented in over 70 countries globally鈥攊s now focusing on the implementation of emerging technologies for individualized and predictive medicine. MASK [MACVIA (Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif)-ARIA Sentinel NetworK] uses mobile technology to develop care pathways for the management of rhinitis and asthma by a multi-disciplinary group and by patients themselves. An app (Android and iOS) is available in 20 countries and 15 languages. It uses a visual analogue scale to assess symptom control and work productivity as well as a clinical decision support system. It is associated with an inter-operable tablet for physicians and other health care professionals. The scaling up strategy uses the recommendations of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. The aim of the novel ARIA approach is to provide an active and healthy life to rhinitis sufferers, whatever their age, sex or socio-economic status, in order to reduce health and social inequalities incurred by the disease

    Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities : results from time series data from the APHEA project

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    Objectives: To carry out a prospective combined quantitative analysis of the associations between all cause mortality and ambient particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. Design: Analysis of time series data on daily number of deaths from all causes and concentrations of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter (measured as black smoke or particles smaller than 10 矛m in diameter (PM10)) and potential confounders. Setting: 12 European cities in the APHEA project (Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach). Main outcome measure: Relative risk of death. Results:In western European cities it was found that an increase of 50 矛g/m3 in sulphur dioxide or black smoke was associated with a 3% (95% confidence interval 2% to 4%) increase in daily mortality and the corresponding figure for PM10 was 2% (1% to 3%). In central eastern European cities the increase in mortality associated with a 50 矛g/m3 change in sulphur dioxide was 0.8% (鈭0.1% to 2.4%) and in black smoke 0.6% (0.1% to 1.1%). Cumulative effects of prolonged (two to four days) exposure to air pollutants resulted in estimates comparable with the one day effects. The effects of both pollutants were stronger during the summer and were mutually independent. Conclusions:The internal consistency of the results in western European cities with wide differences in climate and environmental conditions suggest that these associations may be causal. The long term health impact of these effects is uncertain, but today's relatively low levels of sulphur dioxide and particles still have detectable short term effects on health and further reductions in air pollution are advisable

    A Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention Function in a Population-Based Sample of Children

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    BACKGROUND: Attention function filters and selects behaviorally relevant information. This capacity is impaired in some psychiatric disorders and has been proposed as an endophenotype for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with attention function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The discovery sample included 1655 children (7-12 years) and the replication sample included 546 children (5-8 years). Five attention outcomes were assessed using the computerized Attentional Network Test (ANT): alerting, orienting, executive attention, Hit Reaction time (HRT) and the standard error of HRT (HRTSE). A Genome-wide Association Study was conducted for each outcome. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed to detect biological pathways associated with attention outcomes. Additional neuroimaging analyses were conducted to test neural effects of detected SNPs of interest. RESULTS: Thirteen loci showed suggestive evidence of association with attention function (P<10-5) in the discovery sample. One of them, the rs4321351 located in the PID1 gene, was nominally significant in the replication sample although it did not survive multiple testing correction. Neuroimaging analysis revealed a significant association between this SNP and brain structure and function involving the frontal-basal ganglia circuits. The mTOR signaling and Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathways were significantly enriched for alerting, orienting and HRT respectively (FDR<5%). CONCLUSION: These results suggest for the first time the involvement of the PID1 gene, mTOR signaling and Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathways, in attention function during childhood. These genes and pathways have been proposed to play a role in neuronal plasticity, memory and neurodegenerative disease

    Postnatal exposure to mercury and neuropsychological development among preschooler children

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    The objective of this study was to describe the postnatal exposure to Hg and to evaluate its association with neuropsychological development among preschool children. The study population are 4鈥5 years old children (n = 1252) participant in the Spanish INMA Project. Total Hg was measured in cord blood and in hair samples taken at 4 years of age (2008鈥2012). Neuropsychological development was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children鈥檚 Abilities (MSCA). Information on covariates and possible confounders was obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy and childhood. Generalized additive and linear regression models were built in order to assess the relationship between MSCA scores and Hg exposure. We also evaluated the magnitude of the possible bias generated from measurement error in seafood intake estimate from questionnaire and Hg determination. The geometric mean of hair Hg was 0.98 渭g/g [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94, 1.03]. In the regression analysis, the association between Hg and the MSCA scores was positive for all the scales and statistically significant for the verbal (尾 = 0.89; 95%CI 0.38, 1.39), memory (尾 = 0.42; 95%CI 0.09, 0.76) and general cognitive scales (尾 = 1.35; 95%CI 0.45, 2.25). However, these associations were clearly attenuated when we adjusted by the children鈥檚 fish intake variables or when took into account theoretical scenarios of low precision in fish intake and Hg measurements. Hg levels in this Spanish population were high in comparison with other European countries; however, we did not observe adverse effects on child neuropsychological development associated with this postnatal exposure to Hg

    Prenatal Omega-6:Omega-3 Ratio and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

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    Objective: To evaluate whether higher omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma is associated with more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 4 and 7 years of age. Study design: This study was based on a population-based birth cohort in Spain. N-6 arachidonic acid and n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were measured in cord plasma. At 4 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by teachers through the ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed checklist (n = 580). At 7 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by parents through the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised (short form; n = 642). The ADHD variable was treated as continuous (score) and as dichotomous (symptom diagnostic criteria). Child and family general characteristics were prospectively collected through questionnaires. We applied pooled zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regressions adjusted for covariates. Results: A higher omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma was associated with a higher ADHD index (incidence rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.23) at 7 years old. The association was not observed at 4 years old (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92-1.18). No associations were found using ADHD symptom diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: High prenatal omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio preceded the appearance of subclinical ADHD symptoms during mid-childhood. Our findings suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy may modulate the risk to develop long-term ADHD symptoms in the offspring

    Walnuts, Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, and Adolescent Brain Development: Protocol for the Walnuts Smart Snack Dietary Intervention Trial

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    Background: Adolescence, when the most complex behaviors are refined to adult sophistication, represents a major window of opportunity and vulnerability for neuropsychological development. To support and protect this complex and active brain growth, different nutritional components considered essential need to be acquired from the diet. For instance, omega-3 fatty acids are mainly obtained from seafood, seeds, and walnuts. Known for their rich lipid profile, walnuts contain sizable amounts of an essential fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the vegetable omega-3 fatty acid that is the precursor of two longer-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA): docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids. While there is growing evidence of neuropsychological improvements in the young developing brain associated with omega-3 PUFA intake, few studies have examined whether consuming walnuts during adolescence entails similar beneficial effects. There is a need to further explore the ways in which walnuts influence youthful brain function, particularly for the long-term. Thus, we designed the WALNUTs study (WSS), a population-based randomized controlled trial conducted in adolescents in Barcelona, Spain. We hypothesize that walnut intake will increase omega-3 PUFA tissue availability (particularly ALA) to a level that enhances the neuropsychological development during adolescence. Methodology/Design: We conducted a 6-month population-based randomized controlled trial in teenagers (n = 800) and we aimed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention (four walnuts per day, or 30 kernel g, ~1.5g of ALA) in enhancing brain neuropsychological and socio-emotional development compared to a control group with no walnut intervention. Before randomization, different neuropsychological tests were recorded for all participants, and blood samples (in a subsample of participants) were collected to measure omega-3 PUFA levels at baseline, and all again, after randomization and the intervention. The data is now collected and we will conduct linear regression models to assess the effect of the intervention. Discussion: The WALNUTs (WSS) study results will allow us to better understand the role of plant-based omega-3 PUFA intake from regular walnut consumption on neuropsychological development during adolescence. Results could be translated into nutritional public health recommendations targeting teenagers. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health # NCT02590848. Retrospectively registered 29/10/2015

    Airborne copper exposure in school environments associated with poorer motor performance and altered basal ganglia

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    Children are more vulnerable to the effects of environmental elements. A variety of air pollutants are among the identified factors causing neural damage at toxic concentrations. It is not obvious, however, to what extent the tolerated high levels of air pollutants are able to alter brain development. We have specifically investigated the neurotoxic effects of airborne copper exposure in school environments. Speed and consistency of motor response were assessed in 2836 children aged from 8 to 12 years. Anatomical , diffusion tensor imaging, and functional were used to directly test the brain repercussions in a subgroup of 263 children. Higher copper exposure was associated with poorer motor performance and altered structure of the basal ganglia. Specifically, the architecture of the caudate nucleus region was less complete in terms of both tissue composition and neural track water diffusion. Functional consistently showed a reciprocal connectivity reduction between the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The results establish an association between environmental copper exposure in children and alterations of basal ganglia structure and function