8,180 research outputs found

    Radiomics for MRI Prediction of Tumor Response after Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer

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    Are the Earth and the Moon compositionally alike? Inferences on lunar composition and implications for lunar origin and evolution from geophysical modeling

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    The main objective of the present study is to discuss in detail the results obtained from an inversion of the Apollo lunar seismic data set, lunar mass, and moment of inertia. We inverted directly for lunar chemical composition and temperature using the model system CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Using Gibbs free energy minimization, stable mineral phases at the temperatures and pressures of interest, their modes and physical properties are calculated. We determine the compositional range of the oxide elements, thermal state, Mg#, mineralogy and physical structure of the lunar interior, as well as constraining core size and density. The results indicate a lunar mantle mineralogy that is dominated by olivine and orthopyroxene ( 80 vol%), with the remainder being composed of clinopyroxene and an aluminous phase (plagioclase, spinel, and garnet present in the depth ranges 0–150 km, 150–200 km, and >200 km, respectively). This model is broadly consistent with constraints on mantle mineralogy derived from the experimental and observational study of the phase lationships and trace element compositions of lunar mare basalts and picritic glasses. In particular, by melting a typical model mantle composition using the pMELTS algorithm, we found that a range of batch melts generated from these models have features in common with low Ti mare basalts and picritic glasses. Our results also indicate a bulk lunar composition and Mg# different to that of the Earth’s upper mantle, represented by the pyrolite composition. This difference is reflected in a lower bulk lunar Mg# ( 0.83). Results also indicate a small iron-like core with a radius around 340 km.The Carlsberg Foundation, NER

    Small bowel imaging in inflammatory bowel disease: updates for 2023

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    INTRODUCTION: Cross-sectional imaging techniques including MR and CT enterography and ultrasound are integral to Crohn's disease management, accurate, responsive, and well tolerated. They assess the full thickness of the bowel wall, perienteric environment, and distant complications. As we strive toward tighter disease control, imaging's role will expand further with transmural healing becoming an increasingly important therapeutic target. AREAS COVERED: MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched from 2012 to 2023 inclusive. We review the evidence for cross-sectional imaging in assessing disease activity, phenotyping, and therapeutic response assessment. Emerging novel imaging applications such as quantifying enteric motility and fibrosis, prognostication, and potential utility of artificial intelligence will be covered. Recent international consensus statements highlight the need for standardized imaging reporting and definitions of transmural healing and remission. We will discuss how recent advances may be best integrated into patient care and highlight key outstanding research questions. EXPERT OPINION: Cross-sectional imaging is established in Crohn's disease management. Research emphasis should be placed on optimal integration of imaging modalities in clinical care pathways, workforce training, definitions, and evidence for use of imaging based therapeutic targets such as transmural healing, better phenotyping of stricturing disease, and developing novel techniques, including integration of artificial intelligence

    Calcium-induced Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of pigs susceptible to malignant hyperthermia The effects of halothane and dantrolene

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    AbstractCalcium-induced calcium release and halothane-induced calcium release from pig sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were studied. The SR prepared from pig susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MH) was shown to release calcium at a much lower level of calcium content than in normal pig SR. The concentration above which halothane can release calcium is 40 μM for both MH-SR and normal SR, although the latter required a high calcium content to demonstrate the calcium release. Dantrolene was shown to inhibit the halothane-induced calcium release. Results suggests that SR plays an importnat role in pathogenesis of MH

    Recent advances in clinical practice: advances in cross-sectional imaging in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Endoscopy remains the reference standard for the diagnosis and assessment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it has several important limitations. Cross-sectional imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and intestinal ultrasound (IUS) are better tolerated and safer. Moreover, they can examine the entire bowel, even in patients with stenoses and/or severe inflammation. A variety of cross-sectional imaging activity scores strongly correlate with endoscopic measures of mucosal inflammation in the colon and terminal ileum. Unlike endoscopy, cross-sectional techniques allow complete visualisation of the small-bowel and assess for extraintestinal disease, which occurs in nearly half of patients with IBD. Extramural findings may predict outcomes better than endoscopic mucosal assessment, so cross-sectional techniques might help identify more relevant therapeutic targets. Coupled with their high sensitivity, these advantages have made MRE and IUS the primary non-invasive options for diagnosing and monitoring Crohn’s disease; they are appropriate first-line investigations, and have become viable alternatives to colonoscopy. This review discusses cross-sectional imaging in IBD in current clinical practice as well as research lines that will define the future role of these techniques

    Ten of the best books of 2019 recommended by LSE blog editors

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    Many of the LSE blogs regularly feature book reviews of the latest publications emerging across the social sciences. But which books have LSE blog editors been enjoying in 2019? In this list, five LSE blog editors recommend their favourite reads of the year

    10 of the best books of 2019 recommended by LSE blog editors

    Get PDF
    Many of the LSE blogs regularly feature book reviews of the latest publications emerging across the social sciences. But which books have LSE blog editors been enjoying in 2019? In this list, five LSE blog editors recommend their favourite reads of the year

    Width and Partial Widths of Unstable Particles in the Light of the Nielsen Identities

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    Fundamental properties of unstable particles, including mass, width, and partial widths, are examined on the basis of the Nielsen identities (NI) that describe the gauge dependence of Green functions. In particular, we prove that the pole residues and associated definitions of branching ratios and partial widths are gauge independent to all orders. A simpler, previously discussed definition of branching ratios and partial widths is found to be gauge independent through next-to-next-to-leading order. It is then explained how it may be modified in order to extend the gauge independence to all orders. We also show that the physical scattering amplitude is the most general combination of self-energy, vertex, and box contributions that is gauge independent for arbitrary s, discuss the analytical properties of the NI functions, and exhibit explicitly their one-loop expressions in the Z-gamma sector of the Standard Model.Comment: 20 pages (Latex); minor changes included, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.
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