613 research outputs found

    A comprehensive phylogeny helps clarify the evolutionary history of host breadth and lure response in the Australian Dacini fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    The tribe Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae) contains over 930 recognised species and has been widely studied due to the economic importance of some taxa, such as the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. Despite the attention this group has received, very few phylogenetic reconstructions have comprehensively sampled taxa from a single biogeographic region, thereby limiting our capacity to address more targeted evolutionary questions. To study the evolution of diet breadth and male lure response, two key traits fundamental to understanding dacine diversity and the biology of pest taxa, we analysed 273 individuals representing 144 described species from Australia (80% continental coverage), the Pacific, and select close relatives from South-east Asia to estimate a dated molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of the Dacini. We utilised seven loci with a combined total of 4,332 nucleotides, to estimate both Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenies of the tribe. Consistent with other molecular phylogenies of the tribe, there was a high level of disagreement between the placement of species in the phylogeny and their current subgeneric and species-complex level taxonomies. The Australian fauna exhibit high levels of endemism, with radiations of both exclusively Australian clades, and clades that originate elsewhere (e.g. the Bactrocera dorsalis species group). Bidirectional movement of species has occurred between Papua New Guinea and Australia, with evidence for multiple incursions over evolutionary time. The Bactrocera aglaiae species group emerged sister to all other Bactrocera species examined. Divergence time estimates were ∼ 30 my younger than previously reported for this group, with the tribe diverging from its most recent common ancestor ∼ 43 mya. Ancestral trait reconstruction and tests for trait phylogenetic signal revealed a strong signal for the evolution of male lure response across the tree, with cue-lure/raspberry ketone lure response the ancestral trait. Methyl eugenol response has arisen on multiple, independent occasions. The evolution of host breadth exhibited a weaker signal; yet, basal groups were more likely to be host specialists. Both the evolution of lure response and host fruit use provide predictive information for the outbreak management of understudied pest fruit flies for which direct inference of these features may be lacking. Our results, which parallel those of earlier research into the closely-related African Dacus spp., demonstrate how geographically focussed taxon coverage allows Dacini phylogenetics to more explicitly test evolutionary hypotheses, thereby progressing our understanding of the evolution of this highly diverse and recently-radiated group of flies

    Analysis of a tau neutrino origin for the near-horizon air shower events observed by the fourth flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna

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    We study in detail the sensitivity of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) to possible Formula Presented point source fluxes detected via Formula Presented-lepton-induced air showers. This investigation is framed around the observation of four upward-going extensive air shower events very close to the horizon seen in ANITA-IV. We find that these four upgoing events are not observationally inconsistent with Formula Presented-induced EASs from Earth-skimming Formula Presented both in their spectral properties as well as in their observed locations on the sky. These four events as well as the overall diffuse and point source exposure to Earth-skimming Formula Presented are also compared against published ultrahigh-energy neutrino limits from the Pierre Auger Observatory. While none of these four events occurred at sky locations simultaneously visible by Auger, the implied fluence necessary for ANITA to observe these events is in strong tension with limits set by Auger across a wide range of energies and is additionally in tension with ANITA’s Askaryan in-ice neutrino channel above Formula Presented. We conclude by discussing some of the technical challenges with simulating and analyzing these near horizon events and the potential for future observatories to observe similar events

    SLAC T-510 experiment for radio emission from particle showers: Detailed simulation study and interpretation

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    International audienceOver the last several decades, radio detection of air showers has been widely used to detect ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. We developed an experiment under controlled laboratory conditions at SLAC with which we measured the radio-frequency radiation from a charged particle shower produced by bunches of electrons as primaries with known energy. The shower took place in a target made of high density polyethylene located in a strong magnetic field. The experiment was designed so that Askaryan and magnetically-induced components of the radio emission could be measured independently. At the same time, we performed a detailed simulation of this experiment to predict the radio signal using two microscopic formalisms, endpoint and ZHS. In this paper, we present the simulation scheme and make a comparison with data characteristics such as linearity with magnetic field and amplitude. The simulations agree with the measurements within uncertainties and present a good description of the data. In particular, reflections within the target that accounted for the largest systematic uncertainties are addressed. The prediction of the amplitude of Askaryan emission agrees with measurements to within 5% for the endpoint formalism and 11% for the ZHS formalism. The amplitudes of magnetically-induced emission agree to within 5% for the endpoint formalism and less than 1% for the ZHS formalism. The agreement of the absolute scale of emission gives confidence in state-of-the-art air shower simulations which are based on the applied formalisms

    SLAC T-510 experiment for radio emission from particle showers: Detailed simulation study and interpretation

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    Over the last several decades, radio detection of air showers has been widely used to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We developed an experiment under controlled laboratory conditions at SLAC with which we measured the radio-frequency radiation from a charged particle shower produced by bunches of electrons as primaries with known energy. The shower took place in a target made of High Density Polyethylene located in a strong magnetic field. The experiment was designed so that Askaryan and magnetically-induced components of the radio emission could be measured independently. At the same time, we performed a detailed simulation of this experiment to predict the radio signal using two microscopic formalisms, endpoint and ZHS. In this paper, we present the simulation scheme and make a comparison with data characteristics such as linearity with magnetic field and amplitude. The simulations agree with the measurements within uncertainties and present a good description of the data. In particular, reflections within the target that accounted for the largest systematic uncertainties are addressed. The prediction of the amplitude of Askaryan emission agrees with measurements to within 5% for the endpoint formalism and 11% for the ZHS formalism. The amplitudes of magnetically-induced emission agree to within 5% for the endpoint formalism and less than 1% for the ZHS formalism. The agreement of the absolute scale of emission gives confidence in state-of-the-art air shower simulations which are based on the applied formalisms

    Opiine parasitoids (Hymenoptera Braconidae) and biological control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Australia: Past, present and future

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    Opiine braconids are parasitoids of the immature stages of frugivorous tephritids. The female wasp lays her eggs into the eggs or larvae of the fruit fly host, where the immature wasp develops before emerging as a next-generation adult from the now dead host pupal case. In support of a new generation of Australian fruit fly parasitoid research, this paper comprehensively reviews what is known about the Australian fruit fly infesting opiines. Based on the most recent taxonomic revision 11 fruit fly infesting opiine species are documented to occur in Australia, but we consider as doubtful the record for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and consider the record for Fopius illusorius to be tentative without further collections. We identify that the systematics and taxonomy of the Australian native fruit fly infesting opiines are in urgent need of further work. The history of fruit fly biological control in Australia is comprehensively reviewed, including the export of native Australian opiines for fruit fly control elsewhere in the world. Australia was actively involved in three major classical biological control programmes against fruit flies from the turn of the 1900s until the mid-1960s. Despite the introduction of 11 opiine species, plus numerous other natural enemies, only Fopius arisanus established in eastern Australia, where in South-east Queensland it can now cause between 30 and 40% mean parasitism. In addition to the exotic F. arisanus, the native species Diachasmimorpha kraussii and Diachasmimorpha tryoni also cause fruit fly parasitism in agriculturally important crops: both species have also been liberated widely outside of Australia for fruit fly control. Other Australian opiines have not been reared from flies infesting commercial crops and appear biologically restricted to the fruits and environs of Australian east-coast rainforests. The biology literature for D. tryoni and D. kraussii is comprehensively reviewed, while for F. arisanus, already reviewed elsewhere, key literature only is covered. Forward looking, we consider the potential for inoculative or inundative releases of opiines in areas where they do not currently occur to be good, while conservation biological control may help to increase the impacts of parasitoids in areas where they are already established.</p

    An analysis of a tau-neutrino hypothesis for the near-horizon cosmic-ray-like events observed by ANITA-IV

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    We present the results of a simulation of the acceptance of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) to possible υτ point source fluxes detected via τ-lepton-induced air showers. This investigation is framed around the detection of four upward-going extensive air shower events observed very close to the horizon in ANITA-IV. These four events as well as the overall diffuse and point source exposure to Earth-skimming υτ are also compared against published ultrahigh-energy neutrino limits from the Pierre Auger Observatory. We find that while these four events were detected at sky coordinates close to ANITA’s maximum υτ sensitivity and were not simultaneously visible by Auger, the implied fluence necessary for ANITA to observe these events is in tension with limits set by Auger across a wide range of energies and is additionally in tension with ANITA’s Askaryan in-ice neutrino channel above 1019 eV

    A search for ultrahigh-energy neutrinos associated with astrophysical sources using the third flight of ANITA

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    The ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon experiment is sensitive to interactions of ultrahigh-energy (E>1018 eV) neutrinos in the Antarctic ice sheet. The third flight of ANITA, lasting 22 days, began in December 2014. We develop a methodology to search for energetic neutrinos spatially and temporally coincident with potential source classes in ANITA data. This methodology is applied to several source classes: the potential IceCube-identified neutrino sources TXS 0506+056 and NGC 1068, flaring high-energy blazars reported by the Fermi All-Sky Variability Analysis, gamma-ray bursts, and supernovae. Among searches within the five source classes, one candidate was identified as associated with SN 2015D, although not at a statistically significant level. We proceed to place upper limits on the source classes. We further comment on potential application of this methodology to more sensitive future instruments

    Unusual Near-Horizon Cosmic-Ray-like Events Observed by ANITA-IV

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    ANITA's fourth long-duration balloon flight in 2016 detected 29 cosmic-ray (CR)-like events on a background of 0.37(-0.17)(+0.27) anthropogenic events. CRs arc mainly seen in reflection off the Antarctic ice sheets, creating a phase-inverted waveform polarity. However, four of the below-horizon CR-like events show anomalous noninverted polarity, a p = 5.3 x 10(-4) chance if due to background. All anomalous events are from locations near the horizon; ANITA-IV observed no steeply upcoming anomalous events similar to the two such events seen in prior flights

    Book of Abstracts: 2019 Health Equity Summer Research Summit Organized by the Center of Excellence in Health Equity, Training and Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA on June 18th, 2019

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    Copyright © 2020 Harris. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
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