59 research outputs found

    Health, social and economic implications of adolescent risk behaviours/states: protocol for Raine Study Gen2 cohort data linkage study.

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    BACKGROUND: Risk-taking behaviours are a major contributor to youth morbidity and mortality. Vulnerability to these negative outcomes is constructed from individual behaviour including risk-taking, and from social context, ecological determinants, early life experience, developmental capacity and mental health, contributing to a state of higher risk. However, although risk-taking is part of normal adolescent development, there is no systematic way to distinguish young people with a high probability of serious adverse outcomes, hindering the capacity to screen and intervene. This study aims to explore the association between risk behaviours/states in adolescence and negative health, social and economic outcomes through young adulthood. METHODS: The Raine Study is a prospective cohort study which recruited pregnant women in 1989-91, in Perth, Western Australia. The offspring cohort (N = 2,868) was followed up at regular intervals from 1 to 27 years of age. These data will be linked to State government health and welfare administrative data. We will empirically examine relationships across multiple domains of risk (for example, substance use, sexual behaviour, driving) with health and social outcomes (for instance, road-crash injury, educational underachievement). Microsimulation models will measure the impact of risk-taking on educational attainment and labour force outcomes. DISCUSSION: Comprehensive preventive child health programmes and policy prioritise a healthy start to life. This is the first linkage study focusing on adolescence to adopt a multi-domain approach, and to integrate health economic modelling. This approach captures a more complete picture of health and social impacts of risk behaviour/‚Äčstates in adolescence and young adulthood

    "From the moment i wake up i will use it?every day, very hour": A qualitative study on the patterns of adolescents' mobile touch screen device use from adolescent and parent perspectives

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    Background: The use of mobile touch screen devices, e.g. smartphones and tablet computers, has become increasingly prevalent among adolescents. However, little is known about how adolescents use these devices and potential influences on their use. Hence, this qualitative study explored adolescents' perceptions on their patterns of use and factors influencing use, and perceptions and concerns from parents. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 36; 11 to 18 years) and their parents/caregivers (n = 28) in Singapore recruited to represent males and females across a range of ages from different socioeconomic groups. Prompts covered weekday and weekend use patterns, types of activities, perspectives on amount of use, parental control measures and concerns. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and thematic analysis was carried out. Results: Smartphone was the most common mobile device owned and used by many of the adolescents, while only some used a tablet. Many adolescents and their parents felt that adolescents' MTSD use was high, frequent and ubiquitous, with frequent checking of device and multitasking during use. Reported influences of use included functional, personal and external influences. Some of the influences were irresistibility of mobile devices, lack of self-control, entertainment or relaxation value, and high use by peers, family and for schoolwork that contributed to high use, or school/parental control measures and lack of internet availability that limited use. Most adolescents were generally unconcerned about their use and perceived their usage as appropriate, while most parents expressed several concerns about their adolescents' use and perceived their usage as excessive. Conclusions: This study has provided rich insights into the patterns and influences of contemporary mobile device use by adolescents. Mobile device use has become an integral part of adolescents' daily routines, and was affected by several functional, personal and external influences which either facilitated or limited their use. There also seemed to be a strong inclination for adolescents to frequently check and use their mobile devices. There is an urgent need to understand the implications of these common adolescent behaviours to inform advice for wise mobile device use by adolescents

    Workplace interventions for increasing standing or walking for decreasing musculoskeletal symptoms in sedentary workers

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    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among sedentary workers is high. Interventions that promote occupational standing or walking have been found to reduce occupational sedentary time, but it is unclear whether these interventions ameliorate musculoskeletal symptoms in sedentary workers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of workplace interventions to increase standing or walking for decreasing musculoskeletal symptoms in sedentary workers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, OSH UPDATE, PEDro, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal up to January 2019. We also screened reference lists of primary studies and contacted experts to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), quasi RCTs, and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies of interventions to reduce or break up workplace sitting by encouraging standing or walking in the workplace among workers with musculoskeletal symptoms. The primary outcome was self-reported intensity or presence of musculoskeletal symptoms by body region and the impact of musculoskeletal symptoms such as pain-related disability. We considered work performance and productivity, sickness absenteeism, and adverse events such as venous disorders or perinatal complications as secondary outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles, abstracts, and full-text articles for study eligibility. These review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to request additional data when required. We used GRADE considerations to assess the quality of evidence provided by studies that contributed to the meta-analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We found ten studies including three RCTs, five cluster RCTs, and two CBA studies with a total of 955 participants, all from high-income countries. Interventions targeted changes to the physical work environment such as provision of sit-stand or treadmill workstations (four studies), an activity tracker (two studies) for use in individual approaches, and multi-component interventions (five studies). We did not find any studies that specifically targeted only the organisational level components. Two studies assessed pain-related disability. Physical work environment There was no significant difference in the intensity of low back symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.80 to 0.10; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence) nor in the intensity of upper back symptoms (SMD -0.48, 95% CI -.096 to 0.00; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence) in the short term (less than six months) for interventions using sit-stand workstations compared to no intervention. No studies examined discomfort outcomes at medium (six to less than 12 months) or long term (12 months and more). No significant reduction in pain-related disability was noted when a sit-stand workstation was used compared to when no intervention was provided in the medium term (mean difference (MD) -0.4, 95% CI -2.70 to 1.90; 1 RCT; low-quality evidence). Individual approach There was no significant difference in the intensity or presence of low back symptoms (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.87 to 0.77; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence), upper back symptoms (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.92 to 0.84; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence), neck symptoms (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.78; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence), shoulder symptoms (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.63 to 0.90; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence), or elbow/wrist and hand symptoms (SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.63 to 0.90; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence) for interventions involving an activity tracker compared to an alternative intervention or no intervention in the short term. No studies provided outcomes at medium term, and only one study examined outcomes at long term. Organisational level No studies evaluated the effects of interventions solely targeted at the organisational level. Multi-component approach There was no significant difference in the proportion of participants reporting low back symptoms (risk ratio (RR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.27; 3 RCTs; low-quality evidence), neck symptoms (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.32; 3 RCTs; low-quality evidence), shoulder symptoms (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.12 to 5.80; 2 RCTs; very low-quality evidence), and upper back symptoms (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.32; 3 RCTs; low-quality evidence) for interventions using a multi-component approach compared to no intervention in the short term. Only one RCT examined outcomes at medium term and found no significant difference in low back symptoms (MD -0.40, 95% CI -1.95 to 1.15; 1 RCT; low-quality evidence), upper back symptoms (MD -0.70, 95% CI -2.12 to 0.72; low-quality evidence), and leg symptoms (MD -0.80, 95% CI -2.49 to 0.89; low-quality evidence). There was no significant difference in the proportion of participants reporting low back symptoms (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.40; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence), neck symptoms (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.08; two RCTs; low-quality evidence), and upper back symptoms (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.08 to 3.29; 2 RCTs; low-quality evidence) for interventions using a multi-component approach compared to no intervention in the long term. There was a statistically significant reduction in pain-related disability following a multi-component intervention compared to no intervention in the medium term (MD -8.80, 95% CI -17.46 to -0.14; 1 RCT; low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently available limited evidence does not show that interventions to increase standing or walking in the workplace reduced musculoskeletal symptoms among sedentary workers at short-, medium-, or long-term follow up. The quality of evidence is low or very low, largely due to study design and small sample sizes. Although the results of this review are not statistically significant, some interventions targeting the physical work environment are suggestive of an intervention effect. Therefore, in the future, larger cluster-RCTs recruiting participants with baseline musculoskeletal symptoms and long-term outcomes are needed to determine whether interventions to increase standing or walking can reduce musculoskeletal symptoms among sedentary workers and can be sustained over time

    Laboratory and home comparison of wrist-activity monitors and polysomnography in middle-aged adults

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    ¬© 2017, Japanese Society of Sleep Research. Accurate measurement of time at lights out is essential for calculation of several measures of sleep in wrist-activity monitors. While some devices use subjective reporting of time of lights out from a sleep diary, others utilise an automated proprietary scoring algorithm to calculate time at lights out, thereby negating the need for a sleep diary. This study aimed to compare sleep measures from two such devices to polysomnography (PSG) measures (In laboratory) and against each other when worn at home (At home). Fifty middle-aged adults from the Raine Study underwent overnight PSG during which they wore an ActiGraph‚ĄĘ and a Readiband‚ĄĘ. They also wore both devices at home for 7 nights. The Readiband uses an automated proprietary algorithm to determine time at lights out whereas the ActiGraph requires completion of a sleep diary noting this time. In laboratory, compared to PSG: Readiband underestimated time at lights out, sleep onset, and wake after sleep onset, overestimated sleep latency and duration (p < 0.001 for all); while ActiGraph underestimated sleep latency and wake after sleep onset and overestimated sleep efficiency and duration (p < 0.001 for all). Similar differences between devices were observed on the laboratory night and when at home. In conclusion, an automated algorithm such as the Readiband may be used in the same capacity as the ActiGraph for the collection of sleep measures including time at sleep onset, sleep duration and time at wake. However, Readiband and ActiGraph measures of sleep latency, efficiency and wake after sleep onset should be interpreted with caution

    The Virtual-Spine Platform‚ÄĒAcquiring, visualizing, and analyzing individual sitting behavior

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    Back pain is a serious medical problem especially for those people sitting over long periods during their daily work. Here we present a system to help users monitoring and examining their sitting behavior. The Virtual-Spine Platform (VSP) is an integrated system consisting of a real-time body position monitoring module and a data visualization module to provide individualized, immediate, and accurate sitting behavior support. It provides a comprehensive spine movement analysis as well as accumulated data visualization to demonstrate behavior patterns within a certain period. The two modules are discussed in detail focusing on the design of the VSP system with adequate capacity for continuous monitoring and a web-based interactive data analysis method to visualize and compare the sitting behavior of different persons. The data was collected in an experiment with a small group of subjects. Using this method, the behavior of five subjects was evaluated over a working day, enabling inferences and suggestions for sitting improvements. The results from the accumulated data module were used to elucidate the basic function of body position recognition of the VSP. Finally, an expert user study was conducted to evaluate VSP and support future developments

    Persistent activation of interlinked type 2 airway epithelial gene networks in sputum-derived cells from aeroallergen-sensitized symptomatic asthmatics

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    © 2018 The Author(s). Atopic asthma is a persistent disease characterized by intermittent wheeze and progressive loss of lung function. The disease is thought to be driven primarily by chronic aeroallergen-induced type 2-associated inflammation. However, the vast majority of atopics do not develop asthma despite ongoing aeroallergen exposure, suggesting additional mechanisms operate in conjunction with type 2 immunity to drive asthma pathogenesis. We employed RNA-Seq profiling of sputum-derived cells to identify gene networks operative at baseline in house dust mite-sensitized (HDM S ) subjects with/without wheezing history that are characteristic of the ongoing asthmatic state. The expression of type 2 effectors (IL-5, IL-13) was equivalent in both cohorts of subjects. However, in HDM S -wheezers they were associated with upregulation of two coexpression modules comprising multiple type 2- and epithelial-associated genes. The first module was interlinked by the hubs EGFR, ERBB2, CDH1 and IL-13. The second module was associated with CDHR3 and mucociliary clearance genes. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms operative at baseline in the airway mucosa in atopic asthmatics undergoing natural aeroallergen exposure, and suggest that susceptibility to asthma amongst these subjects involves complex interactions between type 2- and epithelial-associated gene networks, which are not operative in equivalently sensitized/exposed atopic non-asthmatics

    Accelerometer-Derived Activity Phenotypes in Young Adults: a Latent Class Analysis.

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    Purpose: To identify ‚Äúactivity phenotypes‚ÄĚ from accelerometer-derived activity characteristics among young adults. Methods: Participants were young adults (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ628, mean age, 22.1, SD 0.6) in the Raine Study in Western Australia. Sex-specific latent class analyses identified sub-groups using eight indicators derived from 7-day hip-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers: daily steps, total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), MVPA variation, MVPA intensity, MVPA bout duration, sedentary-to-light ratio, sedentary-to-light ratio variation, and sedentary bout duration. Results: Five activity phenotypes were identified for women (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ324) and men (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ304). Activity phenotype 1 for both women (35%) and men (30%) represented average activity characteristics. Phenotype 2 for women (17%) and men (16%) was characterized by below average total activity and MVPA (10.6 and 16.7 min of MVPA/day, women and men respectively). Phenotype 3 for women (15%) and men (23%) was characterized by below average total physical activity, average MVPA (32.6 and 36.5 min/day), high sedentary-light ratio and long sedentary bouts. Phenotype 4 differed between women (29%) and men (18%) but both had low sedentary-to-light ratios and shorter sedentary bouts. Finally, phenotype 5 in both women (4%) and men (12%) was characterized by extreme MVPA metrics (81.3 and 96.1 min/day). Conclusions: Five activity phenotypes were identified for each gender in this population of young adults which can help design targeted interventions to enhance or modulate activity phenotypes

    Ergonomics/human factors in healthcare: a vision for the future

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    How could and should Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) be implemented in healthcare? The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors (CIEHF, UK) has developed a vision for the future to complement the strategic views expressed by the Care Quality Commission, NHS Education for Scotland (NES), Health Education England (HEE), Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and others. The initiatives delivered in the National Health Service (NHS, UK) have succeeded in sparking an interest in HFE. Whilst there have been successes in introducing local improvements using risk management, quality improvement and patient safety methods, the participative nature of HFE supports collaboration by all stakeholders ensuring that a system-wide approach is taken. This offers a new beginning for a common understanding of HFE in healthcare, accessible to all healthcare service stakeholders and provides a vision for education, capacity building and implementation. This paper will describe the consultation process and give examples of ‚Äėwhat good looks like‚Äô; for example making the best use of human capabilities (physical, cognitive, psychological and social characteristics); mitigating for human limitations; and utilizing people in ways that maximize system safety and minimize risk

    The associations of mobile touch screen device use with musculoskeletal symptoms and exposures: A systematic review

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    Background: The use of mobile touch screen devices (MTSDs) has increased rapidly over the last decade, and there are concerns that their use may have negative musculoskeletal consequences; yet evidence on the association of MTSD use with musculoskeletal symptoms and exposures is currently dispersed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available literature on musculoskeletal symptoms and exposures associated with MTSD use. The synthesised information may facilitate wise use of MTSDs and may identify areas in need of further research. Methods: EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO and Proquest electronic databases were searched for articles published up to June 2016, using keywords describing MTSD, musculoskeletal symptoms (e.g. pain, discomfort) and musculoskeletal exposures (e.g. posture, muscle activity). Two reviewers independently screened the articles, extracted relevant data and assessed methodological quality of included studies. Due to heterogeneity in the studies, a meta-analysis was not possible and a structured narrative synthesis of the findings was undertaken. Results: A total of 9,908 articles were screened for eligibility with 45 articles finally included for review. Included articles were of cross-sectional, case-control or experimental laboratory study designs. No longitudinal studies were identified. Findings were presented and discussed in terms of the amount, features, tasks and positions of MTSD use and its association with musculoskeletal symptoms and musculoskeletal exposures. Conclusions: There is limited evidence that MTSD use, and various aspects of its use (i.e. amount of usage, features, tasks and positions) are associated with musculoskeletal symptoms and exposures. This is due to mainly low quality experimental and case-control laboratory studies, with few cross-sectional and no longitudinal studies. Further research is warranted in order to develop guidelines for wise use of MTSDs

    Socioeconomic differences in children’s television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study

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    <div><p>We aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands. Parent-reported television viewing time for children aged 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 years were collected by questionnaires sent from April 2004 until January 2015. Odds ratios of watching television ‚Č•1 hour/day at each age were calculated for children of mothers with low, mid-low, mid-high and high (reference group) education and children from low, middle and high (reference group) income households. A generalized logistic mixed model was used to assess the association between family socioeconomic status and child television viewing time trajectory. The percentage of children watching television ‚Č•1 hour/day increased from age 2 to 9 years for all children (24.2%-85.0% for children of low-educated mothers; 4.7%-61.4% for children of high-educated mothers; 17.2%-74.9% for children from low income households; 6.2%-65.1% for children from high income households). Independent socioeconomic effect in child television viewing time was found for maternal educational level. The interaction between net household income and child age in longitudinal analyses was significant (p = 0.01), indicating that the television viewing time trajectories were different in household income subgroups. However the interaction between maternal educational level and child age was not significant (p = 0.19). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in child television viewing time were found from the preschool period to the late school period. The educational differences between the various educational subgroups remained stable with increasing age, but the differences between household income groups changed over time. Intervention developers and healthcare practitioners need to raise awareness among non-highly educated parents that the socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time has a tracking effect starting from preschool age.</p></div
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