30 research outputs found

    Analyzing the Agricultural Trade Impacts of the Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement

    Get PDF
    In this paper we study the agricultural trade impacts of the Canada Chile Free Trade Agreement (CCFTA). We find that the effect of the CCFTA on Chilean agricultural exports to Canada is large and positive. We estimate that approximately one-half of a 90 percent increase in Chilean exports to Canada can be attributed to trade preferences that the country received under the agreement. We found no effect of the agreement on Canadian exports to Chile. As far as we know, our paper is among the few that carries out a detailed empirical analysis of \ the effect of the FTA on agriculture. Most empirical papers that have studied the trade impact of FTAs rely on country-wide gravity models and aggregate trade data. These aggregate analyses can hide negative effects of FTAs on some sectors (like agriculture) where a country may have a comparative disadvantage. Our approach is industry-focused and differs from the mainstream literature analyzing FTAs.Canada, Chile, FTA, regional, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,

    Registered high mortality of allochthon Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) in an artificial pond in Sofia, Bulgaria

    Get PDF
    U ovom radu prikazujem nalaz ┼íest uginulih odraslih jedinki crvenouhe kornja─Źe u umjetnom jezeru u gradskom parku u Sofiji, Bugarska, te diskutiram o potencijalnim uzrocima. Ovo opa┼żanje uspore─Ĺeno je i sa drugim sli─Źnim zabilje┼żenim smrtnostima u Bugarskoj i drugdje. Ukratko diskutiram i druge potencijalne probleme uzrokovane ┼íirenjem ove strane invazivne vrste, posebice u malim izoliranim jezerima i lokvama. Cilj ovog rada je da se privu─Źe pozornost drugih istra┼żiva─Źa prema ovakvim neobja┼ínjenim pove─Źanim smrtnostima , da ih se ohrabri da takve slu─Źajeve objavljuju, te da multidisciplinarnim istra┼żivanjima poku┼ía objasniti o ─Źemu se to─Źno radi.I report of finding six adult Red-eared sliders dead in an artificial pond in a park in Sofia, Bulgaria and stipulate on potential causes. I compare this case to similar occurrences in Bulgaria and elsewhere. Briefly, I discuss the potential issues from the presence of this non-native turtle, especially in small, isolated ponds. My aim is to draw attention of researchers to this unexplained mortality, encourage them to report similar observations and work towards finding the exact cause

    Productivity Gains from Worker Mobility and their Distribution between Workers and Firms

    Get PDF
    Using data from the universe of Danish manufacturing firms and workers over the period 1995-2007, we estimate output gains linked to productivity spillovers through worker mobility, and calculate the shares in these gains accrued to firms, to the workers who bring spillovers, and to the rest of the workers. Applying our results to the manufacturing sector as a whole, the total output gains average at 0.16% per year, of which 80% is retained by the firms, 15% by the rest of the workers, and only 5% goes to the workers who bring spillovers. We therefore conclude that output gains through worker mobility are largely a positive externality for hiring firms

    Skills, Population Aging, and the Pattern of Trade

    Get PDF
    In this paper we investigate a particular mechanism through which differences in demographic composition across countries affect international trade flows. Some cognitive functions are known to vary across the adult life span, and in particular the ability to update skills and adapt to changes in working conditions. As a country's population is getting older, it becomes increasingly difficult for firms to find workers with up-to-date skills. As a result, countries with aging populations will start losing comparative advantage in industries that rely heavily on workers' ability to adapt to frequent changes in working conditions. We test this hypothesis and find robust empirical evidence for a significant negative effect of population aging on comparative advantage of a country in industries which are intensive in skill adaptability of the labor force, in both the cross-sectional and the dynamic panel data sets

    Female Labor Supply and International Trade

    Get PDF
    We study the effect of spatial variation in female labor supply on international trade flows. We identify the set of gender-specific skills and argue that low female labor supply reduces the endowment of female-oriented skills and undermines comparative advantage in industries which use female labor intensively. We confirm this hypothesis using two different settings. First, we show that countries with low female labor supply, measured by female labor force participation, have comparative disadvantage in female-labor-intensive industries. To establish causality, we instrument female labor supply with cross-country differences in cultural values regarding the role of women in society. Second, we confirm the main hypothesis on trade data from Chinese regions. Using spatial variation in sex ratios resulting from the One Child Policy (OCP), we rely on the stringency of OCP as an exogenous female labor supply shifter. Other things equal, regions with higher female population share specialize in industries which use female labor intensively. We interpret our results as highlighting the importance of labor force gender composition for industry's productivity. Our results imply that the effect of gender imbalances in labor supply on labor market outcomes, observed in many parts of the world, can be mitigated through international trade by utilizing relatively abundant type of labor in export-oriented industries

    Tariff Cooperation in Free Trade Areas

    Get PDF
    This paper develops a model of endogenous trade policy formation to study the impact of free trade agreements (FTA) on external trade policies of member states when they internalize the intra-bloc welfare effects. This model is empirically tested using global trade data covering 170 countries and 177 FTAs established between 1988 and 2011. We find empirical evidence of tariff cooperation between members of FTAs. Using three different measures of political relations (the affinity scores from the UN General Assembly Voting Data, dyad alliances data, and bilateral events and interactions data), we show that members with good political relations cooperate more on external tariff policy after formation of FTAs. On average, an increase in the market share of FTA partners' firms by one standard deviation is associated with about 3 percentage points increase in external tariffs

    Preferential versus Multilateral Trade Liberalization and the Role of Political Economy

    Get PDF
    In this paper we analyze the effect of the freedom to pursue preferential trade liberalization, permitted by Article XXIV of the GATT, on country's incentives to participate in multilateral negotiations and on the feasibility of the global free trade. We present a model in which countries choose whether to participate in preferential or multilateral trade agreements under political pressures from domestic special interest groups. We show that heterogeneity in political preferences across countries plays an important role for the relative merits of preferential and multilateral approaches to trade liberalization. On one hand, the opportunity to liberalize preferentially may be necessary to induce countries with strong political motivations to participate in multilateral free trade negotiations. On the other hand, when countries share similar political preferences, multilateral free trade that would have been politically supported otherwise becomes unattainable if countries can pursue preferential liberalization

    First survey on the invasive Pond slider (Trachemys scripta) in Bulgaria: historic development and current situation

    Get PDF
    Crvenouha kornja─Źa (Trachemys scripta) postala je popularni ljubimac u Bugarskoj od 1990. Kroz godine sve ve─çi broj jedinki zabilje┼żen je i u divljini. Iako su negativni u─Źinci na izvornim kornja─Źe su opse┼żno studirao negdje drugdje, nema posebne studije (osim kratkih izvje┼í─ça) obratili invaziju T. scripta u Bugarskoj. Ova studija se temelji na vi┼íe od 25 godina pra─çenja na terenu i predstavlja prvi izvor detaljne informacije o raspodjeli Pond kliza─Źa u Bugarskoj. Ukupno 293 UTM (10 ├Ś 10 km) kvadrata sa stani┼íta pogodna za slatkovodne kornja─Źe ispitano. Prikupili smo 64 zapisa za 173 osoba, od 19 UTM kvadrata. Od svih promatranih osoba, samo dvije su od nominirati podvrste - ostatak pripada T. ┼á. elegans. U na┼íem istra┼żivanju je uo─Źeno samo jednoga djeteta. Do danas nije uspje┼íno le┼żenja zabilje┼żena, iako su registrirani uspje┼íni overwinterings. Mi smo razgovarali o raznim mjere ubla┼żavanja koje se moraju brzo pokrenut ograni─Źiti budu─çe izdanje Ribnjak kliza─Źa i za uklanjanje ne-izvornih uzoraka s bugarskim ekosustava. Akcije su zahtijevali posebno da se izbjegne potencijalne epidemiolo┼íko doga─Ĺaja uzrokovanih parazitima s vrlo smrtonosnim u─Źinkom na autohtonim vrstama. Takve pojave potencijalno mogu imati ve─çi utjecaj na autohtone vrste kornja─Źa jezerce od raznih oblika natjecanja s T. scripta.Pond sliders (Trachemys scripta) have become a popular pet in Bulgaria since 1990. Through the years a number of released specimens were observed in the wild. Although the negative effects on native turtles have been studied extensively elsewhere, no specific studies (besides brief reports) have addressed the invasion of T. scripta in Bulgaria. The present study is based on over 25 years of field monitoring and represents the first source of detailed information on the distribution of the Pond slider in Bulgaria. A total of 293 UTM (10├Ś10 km) squares with habitats suitable for freshwater turtles were surveyed. We collected 64 records for 173 individuals, from 19 UTM squares. From all observed individuals, only two were from the nominate subspecies ÔÇô the rest belong to T. s. elegans. In our study only one subadult was observed. To date no successful hatching has been recorded, although successful overwinterings have been registered. We discuss various mitigation measures that must be rapidly initiated to limit future release of Pond sliders and to remove the non-native specimens from the Bulgarian ecosystems. Actions are demanded especially to avoid the potential epizootic events caused by parasites with highly lethal effect on native species. Such outbreaks might potentially have greater impact on the native pond turtle species than various forms of competition with T. scripta

    A MSFD complementary approach for the assessment of pressures, knowledge and data gaps in Southern European Seas : the PERSEUS experience

    Get PDF
    PERSEUS project aims to identify the most relevant pressures exerted on the ecosystems of the Southern European Seas (SES), highlighting knowledge and data gaps that endanger the achievement of SES Good Environmental Status (GES) as mandated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A complementary approach has been adopted, by a meta-analysis of existing literature on pressure/impact/knowledge gaps summarized in tables related to the MSFD descriptors, discriminating open waters from coastal areas. A comparative assessment of the Initial Assessments (IAs) for five SES countries has been also independently performed. The comparison between meta-analysis results and IAs shows similarities for coastal areas only. Major knowledge gaps have been detected for the biodiversity, marine food web, marine litter and underwater noise descriptors. The meta-analysis also allowed the identification of additional research themes targeting research topics that are requested to the achievement of GES. 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.peer-reviewe
    corecore