5,476 research outputs found

    The measurement of training opportunities course outcomes: an effective policy tool?

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    Training Opportunities is an active labour market policy initiative, and part of a response to the entrenched problems of unemployment in Aotearoa New Zealand. The funding and implementation of Training Opportunities are determined in part by a particular system for measuring course outcomes. This paper argues that this measuring system should not be used for policy development, due to measurement errors and problems assigning causality to the intervention. Consequently, various disincentives arise that contradict the objectives of Training Opportunities. While accountability is important, the over-reliance on the narrowly defined Training Opportunities outcomes undermines the ability of providers to assist the unemployed, and thereby contribute to the policy goals of reducing unemployment and labour market disadvantage in New Zealand

    Framing Social Values:\ud An Experimental Study of Culture and Cognition

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    How and why does a given social value come to shape the way an individual thinks, feels,and acts in a specific social situation? This study links ideas from Goffman’s frame analysis to other lines of research, proposing that dramatic narratives of variable content, vividness,and language-in-use produce variation in the accessibility of schematic, internal cultural frameworks, and, thereby, variation in the social value frames that gain situational primacy. Hypotheses derived from the argument are experimentally supported, and results encourage further research on the process of social value framing, which operates as a person crosses oundaries in the complex subcultural mosaic

    Internal dynamics and membership of the NGC 3603 Young Cluster from microarcsecond astrometry

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    We have analyzed two epochs of HST/WFPC2 observations of the young Galactic starburst cluster in NGC 3603 with the aim to study its internal dynamics and stellar population. Relative proper motions measured over 10.15 yrs of more than 800 stars enable us to distinguish cluster members from field stars. The best-fitting isochrone yields Av=4.6-4.7 mag, a distance of 6.6-6.9 kpc, and an age of 1 Myr for NGC 3603 Young Cluster (NYC). We identify pre-main-sequence/main-sequence transition stars located in the short-lived radiative-convective gap, which in the NYC occurs in the mass range 3.5-3.8 Msun. We also identify a sparse population of stars with an age of 4 Myr, which appear to be the lower mass counterparts to previously discovered blue supergiants located in the giant HII region NGC 3603. For the first time, we are able to measure the internal velocity dispersion of a starburst cluster from 234 stars with I < 18.5 mag to {\sigma}_pm1D=141+/-27 {\mu}as/yr (4.5+/-0.8 km/s at a distance of 6.75 kpc). As stars with masses between 1.7 and 9 Msun all exhibit the same velocity dispersion, the cluster stars have not yet reached equipartition of kinetic energy (i.e., the cluster is not in virial equilibrium). The results highlight the power of combining high-precision astrometry and photometry, and emphasize the role of NYC as a benchmark object for testing stellar evolution models and dynamical models for young clusters and as a template for extragalactic starburst clusters.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Reconstructing the Arches I: Constraining the Initial Conditions

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    We have performed a series of N-body simulations to model the Arches cluster. Our aim is to find the best fitting model for the Arches cluster by comparing our simulations with observational data and to constrain the parameters for the initial conditions of the cluster. By neglecting the Galactic potential and stellar evolution, we are able to efficiently search through a large parameter space to determine e.g. the IMF, size, and mass of the cluster. We find, that the cluster's observed present-day mass function can be well explained with an initial Salpeter IMF. The lower mass-limit of the IMF cannot be well constrained from our models. In our best models, the total mass and the virial radius of the cluster are initially (5.1 +/- 0.8) 10^4 Msun and 0.76 +/- 0.12 pc, respectively. The concentration parameter of the initial King model is w0 = 3-5.Comment: 12 pages, 14 Figures, revised and accepted for publication in MNRA

    No evidence for mass segregation in massive young clusters

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    Aims. We investigate the validity of the mass segregation indicators commonly used in analysing young stellar clusters. Methods. We simulate observations by constructing synthetic seeing-limited images of a 1000 massive clusters (10^4 Msun) with a standard IMF and a King-density distribution function. Results. We find that commonly used indicators are highly sensitive to sample incompleteness in observational data and that radial completeness determinations do not provide satisfactory corrections, rendering the studies of radial properties highly uncertain. On the other hand, we find that, under certain conditions, the global completeness can be estimated accurately, allowing for the correction of the global luminosity and mass functions of the cluster. Conclusions. We argue that there is currently no observational evidence of mass segregation in young compact clusters since there is no robust way to differentiate between true mass segregation and sample incompleteness effects. Caution should then be exercised when interpreting results from observations as evidence of mass segregation.Comment: 10 pages, 12 figures, typos corrected. Download a high-resolution version at http://www.astro.up.pt/~jascenso/mseg_v2.pdf (1 MB

    Model Predictive Control Based Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Vehicles - An Architectural Approach

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    Research in the field of automated driving has created promising results in the last years. Some research groups have shown perception systems which are able to capture even complicated urban scenarios in great detail. Yet, what is often missing are general-purpose path- or trajectory planners which are not designed for a specific purpose. In this paper we look at path- and trajectory planning from an architectural point of view and show how model predictive frameworks can contribute to generalized path- and trajectory generation approaches for generating safe trajectories even in cases of system failures.Comment: Presented at IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium 2017, Los Angeles, CA, US

    Galactic Halo substructure in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the ancient tidal stream from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy

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    Two studies have recently reported the discovery of pronounced Halo substructure in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) commissioning data. Here we show that this Halo substructure is almost in its entirety due to the expected tidal stream torn off the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy during the course of its many close encounters with the Milky Way. This interpretation makes strong predictions on the kinematics and distances of these stream stars. Comparison of the structure in old horizontal branch stars, detected by the SDSS team, with the carbon star structure discovered in our own survey, indicates that this halo stream is of comparable age to the Milky Way. It would appear that the Milky Way and the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy have been a strongly interacting system for most of their existence. Once complete, the SDSS will provide a unique dataset with which to constrain the dynamical evolution of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, it will also strongly constrain the mass distribution of the outer Milky Way.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures (1 color figure chunky due to PS compression), minor revisions,accepted by ApJ

    Disks in the Arches cluster -- survival in a starburst environment

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    Deep Keck/NIRC2 HK'L' observations of the Arches cluster near the Galactic center reveal a significant population of near-infrared excess sources. We combine the L'-band excess observations with K'-band proper motions, to confirm cluster membership of excess sources in a starburst cluster for the first time. The robust removal of field contamination provides a reliable disk fraction down to our completeness limit of H=19 mag, or about 5 Msun at the distance of the Arches. Of the 24 identified sources with K'-L' > 2.0 mag, 21 have reliable proper motion measurements, all of which are proper motion members of the Arches cluster. VLT/SINFONI K'-band spectroscopy of three excess sources reveals strong CO bandhead emission, which we interpret as the signature of dense circumstellar disks. The detection of strong disk emission from the Arches stars is surprising in view of the high mass of the B-type main sequence host stars of the disks and the intense starburst environment. We find a disk fraction of 6 +/- 2% among B-type stars in the Arches cluster. A radial increase in the disk fraction from 3 to 10% suggests rapid disk destruction in the immediate vicinity of numerous O-type stars in the cluster core. A comparison between the Arches and other high- and low-mass star-forming regions provides strong indication that disk depletion is significantly more rapid in compact starburst clusters than in moderate star-forming environments.Comment: 51 pages preprint2 style, 22 figures, accepted by Ap
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