61 research outputs found

    The Role of Related Party Fundraising on the Relation Between Reporting Quality and Donations

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    Prior research shows that donors discount program ratios when a nonprofit organization reports zero fundraising expense. In this paper, we show that a plausible reason for organizations reporting zero fundraising expenses is that a related party conducts fundraising on the organization’s behalf. Consistent with this interpretation, we find that nonprofits reporting a related fundraising entity are more likely to report zero fundraising expenses. We also find that related party fundraising moderates the impact of reporting zero fundraising expenses on donors use of the program ratio in their donation decisions

    The formation of iron oxides and magnetic enhancement mechanisms in northern Iranian loess-paleosol sequences: Evidence from diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry and temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility

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    The magnetic properties of the loess-paleosol sequences from northern Iran provides a model for understanding pedogenic processes and their relationship to paleo-precipitation in this region. For the first time, we present diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (DRS) analyses, color measurement analyses, and temperature-dependent susceptibility (chi-T) in argon from two late Pleistocene loess-paleosol sequences in northern Iran. Magnetic iron oxide minerals, principally magnetite, maghemite, hematite, and goethite were identified in the study sections. The results of DRS and color measurements show that a* values, the hematite to goethite ratio and the maghemite to hematite ratio, exhibit a significant positive correlation with the pedogenic process and paleosol formation and are superior to low-frequency susceptibility alone for estimating paleoprecipitation. Our data also indicates that pedogenic maghemite-magnetite formation and dissolution/reprecipitation are major contributors to the magnetic enhancement of loess-paleosol sequences and might indicate a seasonal aspect for pedogenic maghemite-magnetite formation. We propose the DRS-derived illite to chlorite ratio as a useful index for assessing the intensity of silicate mineral weathering in the northern Iranian loess-paleosol sequences. In addition, DRS can be used to discriminate between pedogenic and detrital hematite of loess-paleosol sequences. We also propose that the chi-T cooling and heating ratio model is a quantitative proxy for magnetic enhancement in soils and paleosols of loess-paleosol sequences

    Cardiac myosin activation with omecamtiv mecarbil in systolic heart failure

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    BACKGROUND The selective cardiac myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil has been shown to improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Its effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. METHODS We randomly assigned 8256 patients (inpatients and outpatients) with symptomatic chronic heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less to receive omecamtiv mecarbil (using pharmacokinetic-guided doses of 25 mg, 37.5 mg, or 50 mg twice daily) or placebo, in addition to standard heart-failure therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of a first heart-failure event (hospitalization or urgent visit for heart failure) or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS During a median of 21.8 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 1523 of 4120 patients (37.0%) in the omecamtiv mecarbil group and in 1607 of 4112 patients (39.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 0.99; P = 0.03). A total of 808 patients (19.6%) and 798 patients (19.4%), respectively, died from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.11). There was no significant difference between groups in the change from baseline on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score. At week 24, the change from baseline for the median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level was 10% lower in the omecamtiv mecarbil group than in the placebo group; the median cardiac troponin I level was 4 ng per liter higher. The frequency of cardiac ischemic and ventricular arrhythmia events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection, those who received omecamtiv mecarbil had a lower incidence of a composite of a heart-failure event or death from cardiovascular causes than those who received placebo. (Funded by Amgen and others; GALACTIC-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02929329; EudraCT number, 2016 -002299-28.)

    Omecamtiv mecarbil in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, GALACTIC‐HF: baseline characteristics and comparison with contemporary clinical trials

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    Aims: The safety and efficacy of the novel selective cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is tested in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC‐HF) trial. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of participants in GALACTIC‐HF and how these compare with other contemporary trials. Methods and Results: Adults with established HFrEF, New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA) ≄ II, EF ≀35%, elevated natriuretic peptides and either current hospitalization for HF or history of hospitalization/ emergency department visit for HF within a year were randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil (pharmacokinetic‐guided dosing: 25, 37.5 or 50 mg bid). 8256 patients [male (79%), non‐white (22%), mean age 65 years] were enrolled with a mean EF 27%, ischemic etiology in 54%, NYHA II 53% and III/IV 47%, and median NT‐proBNP 1971 pg/mL. HF therapies at baseline were among the most effectively employed in contemporary HF trials. GALACTIC‐HF randomized patients representative of recent HF registries and trials with substantial numbers of patients also having characteristics understudied in previous trials including more from North America (n = 1386), enrolled as inpatients (n = 2084), systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg (n = 1127), estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 528), and treated with sacubitril‐valsartan at baseline (n = 1594). Conclusions: GALACTIC‐HF enrolled a well‐treated, high‐risk population from both inpatient and outpatient settings, which will provide a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this novel therapy, as well as informing its potential future implementation