143 research outputs found

    Protocol for examining the capability of senescent tumor cells to stimulate murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells by flow cytometry

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    Summary: Therapy-induced senescence (TIS) may contribute to therapy resistance; however, evidence also suggests that senescent cells (SnCs) may promote anti-tumor immunity. Here, we present a protocol for examining the capability of TIS to stimulate type 1 conventional CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs). We describe steps for isolating and differentiating CD103+ DCs from murine bone marrow, inducing senescence in murine colon carcinoma cell line CT26, and coculturing DCs with SnCs. We then detail the flow cytometric analysis of DC maturation and activation.For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Liu et al. (2022)1 and Liu et al. (2023).2 : Publisher’s note: Undertaking any experimental protocol requires adherence to local institutional guidelines for laboratory safety and ethics

    Polyphosphate degradation by Nudt3-Zn 2+ mediates oxidative stress response

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    Polyphosphate (polyP) is a polymer of hundreds of phosphate residues present in all organisms. In mammals, polyP is involved in crucial physiological processes, including coagulation, inflammation, and stress response. However, after decades of research, the metabolic enzymes are still unknown. Here, we purify and identify Nudt3, a NUDIX family member, as the enzyme responsible for polyP phosphatase activity in mammalian cells. We show that Nudt3 shifts its substrate specificity depending on the cation; specifically, Nudt3 is active on polyP when Zn2+ is present. Nudt3 has in vivo polyP phosphatase activity in human cells, and importantly, we show that cells with altered polyP levels by modifying Nudt3 protein amount present reduced viability upon oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, suggesting that polyP and Nudt3 play a role in oxidative stress protection. Finally, we show that Nudt3 is involved in the early stages of embryo development in zebrafish.This work was supported by and is part of the I+D+i grant ref. PGC2018-096597-B-I00 (to J.J.) by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN). B.S.-M. was the recipient of a grant from the Agència de Gestió d’Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca AGAUR ref. 2016FI_B 00025. H.J.J. was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy (CIBBS, EXC-2189, Project ID 390939984)

    Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ3 suppresses the bacterial AvrPto1–tomato PTO immune complex via acetylation

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    The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae secretes multiple effectors that modulate plant defenses. Some effectors trigger defenses due to specific recognition by plant immune complexes, whereas others can suppress the resulting immune responses. The HopZ3 effector of P. syringae pv. syringae B728a (PsyB728a) is an acetyltransferase that modifies not only components of plant immune complexes, but also the Psy effectors that activate these complexes. In Arabidopsis, HopZ3 acetylates the host RPM1 complex and the Psy effectors AvrRpm1 and AvrB3. This study focuses on the role of HopZ3 during tomato infection. In Psy-resistant tomato, the main immune complex includes PRF and PTO, a RIPK-family kinase that recognizes the AvrPto effector. HopZ3 acts as a virulence factor on tomato by suppressing AvrPto1Psy-triggered immunity. HopZ3 acetylates AvrPto1Psy and the host proteins PTO, SlRIPK and SlRIN4s. Biochemical reconstruction and site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggest that acetylation acts in multiple ways to suppress immune signaling in tomato. First, acetylation disrupts the critical AvrPto1Psy-PTO interaction needed to initiate the immune response. Unmodified residues at the binding interface of both proteins and at other residues needed for binding are acetylated. Second, acetylation occurs at residues important for AvrPto1Psy function but not for binding to PTO. Finally, acetylation reduces specific phosphorylations needed for promoting the immune-inducing activity of HopZ3's targets such as AvrPto1Psy and PTO. In some cases, acetylation competes with phosphorylation. HopZ3-mediated acetylation suppresses the kinase activity of SlRIPK and the phosphorylation of its SlRIN4 substrate previously implicated in PTO-signaling. Thus, HopZ3 disrupts the functions of multiple immune components and the effectors that trigger them, leading to increased susceptibility to infection. Finally, mass spectrometry used to map specific acetylated residues confirmed HopZ3's unusual capacity to modify histidine in addition to serine, threonine and lysine residues

    Therapy-Induced Senescence: Opportunities to Improve Anticancer Therapy.

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    Cellular senescence is an essential tumor suppressive mechanism that prevents the propagation of oncogenically activated, genetically unstable, and/or damaged cells. Induction of tumor cell senescence is also one of the underlying mechanisms by which cancer therapies exert antitumor activity. However, an increasing body of evidence from preclinical studies demonstrates that radiation and chemotherapy cause accumulation of senescent cells (SnCs) both in tumor and normal tissue. SnCs in tumors can, paradoxically, promote tumor relapse, metastasis, and resistance to therapy, in part, through expression of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. In addition, SnCs in normal tissue can contribute to certain radiation- and chemotherapy-induced side effects. Because of its multiple roles, cellular senescence could serve as an important target in the fight against cancer. This commentary provides a summary of the discussion at the National Cancer Institute Workshop on Radiation, Senescence, and Cancer (August 10-11, 2020, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD) regarding the current status of senescence research, heterogeneity of therapy-induced senescence, current status of senotherapeutics and molecular biomarkers, a concept of "one-two punch" cancer therapy (consisting of therapeutics to induce tumor cell senescence followed by selective clearance of SnCs), and its integration with personalized adaptive tumor therapy. It also identifies key knowledge gaps and outlines future directions in this emerging field to improve treatment outcomes for cancer patients

    A cmap-enabled gene expression signature-matching approach identifies small-molecule inducers of accelerated cell senescence

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    Abstract Background Diverse stresses including genotoxic therapy can induce proliferating cancer cells to undergo cellular senescence and take on the characteristic phenotypes of replicative cellular aging. This accelerated or therapy-induced senescence has been alternatively proposed to contribute to therapeutic efficacy or resistance. Toward better understanding this cell state, we sought to define the core transcriptome of accelerated senescence in cancer cells. Results We examined senescence induced by ionizing irradiation or ectopic overexpression of the stoichiometric cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21CIP/WAF1/SDI1 in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7. While radiation produces a strong DNA damage response, ectopic expression of p21 arrests cell cycle progression independently of DNA damage. Both conditions promoted senescence within 5 days. Microarray analysis revealed 378 up- and 391 down-regulated genes that were shared between the two conditions, representing a candidate signature. Systems analysis of the shared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed strong signals for cell cycle control and DNA damage response pathways and predicted multiple upstream regulators previously linked to senescence. Querying the shared DEGs against the Connectivity Map (cmap) database of transcriptional responses to small molecules yielded 20 compounds that induce a similar gene expression pattern in MCF7 cells. Of 16 agents evaluated, six induced senescence on their own. Of these, the selective estrogen receptor degrader fulvestrant and the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor vorinostat did so without causing chromosomal damage. Conclusions Using a systems biology approach with experimental validation, we have defined a core gene expression signature for therapy-induced senescence
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