20 research outputs found

    Archaeological sites as Distributed Long-term Observing Networks of the Past (DONOP)

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    The authors would also like to acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation, specifically the Arctic Social Sciences Program, and RANNIS (The Icelandic Center for Research).Archaeological records provide a unique source of direct data on long-term human-environment interactions and samples of ecosystems affected by differing degrees of human impact. Distributed long-term datasets from archaeological sites provide a significant contribution to establish local, regional, and continental-scale environmental baselines and can be used to understand the implications of human decision-making and its impacts on the environment and the resources it provides for human use. Deeper temporal environmental baselines are essential for resource and environmental managers to restore biodiversity and build resilience in depleted ecosystems. Human actions are likely to have impacts that reorganize ecosystem structures by reducing diversity through processes such as niche construction. This makes data from archaeological sites key assets for the management of contemporary and future climate change scenarios because they combine information about human behavior, environmental baselines, and biological systems. Sites of this kind collectively form Distributed Long-term Observing Networks of the Past (DONOP), allowing human behavior and environmental impacts to be assessed over space and time. Behavioral perspectives are gained from direct evidence of human actions in response to environmental opportunities and change. Baseline perspectives are gained from data on species, landforms, and ecology over timescales that long predate our typically recent datasets that only record systems already disturbed by people. And biological perspectives can provide essential data for modern managers wanting to understand and utilize past diversity (i.e., trophic and/or genetic) as a way of revealing, and potentially correcting, weaknesses in our contemporary wild and domestic animal populations.PostprintPeer reviewe

    Simulation-based assessment of segmentation and control strategies within multi-variant productions

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    The increasing individualization of products is an enormous challenge for manufacturing companies. An increase of product variants and thus product complexity leads to increased process complexity within productions. An option to face this challenge is the segmentation of productions. Unfortunately, it is hardly possible to assess segmentation and the corresponding control strategies by using common methods, such as value stream mapping. Therefore, a simulation-based approach to assess segmentation and control strategies within multi-variant productions is shown in this paper. The approach is applied for a multi-variant production for medical equipment. Besides the development of the approach, the paper also shows the assessment results for the case study production

    Modular simulation model for remanufacturing operations

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    Today, remanufacturing is a key industrial discipline at the end of a product's life or use cycle. Due to high product and resulting process variety, static analytical approaches to assess and improve remanufacturing operations are not reliable. Whereas dynamic material flow simulation is a promising approach. Unfortunately, there is a lack of knowledge when it comes to simulation based improvement of remanufacturing operations. To close the lack of knowledge, this paper will show a modular simulation model to improve production systems of remanufacturing operations. The results will enable remanufacturing companies to assess and improve their production systems in an efficient way

    An Approach Towards an Adaptive Quality Assurance

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    In order to optimize the quality-related costs, the quality assurance within the production must be designed in terms of economical criteria. This design is time-consuming and cost-intensive. However, due to the increasing individualization up to lot size one, the quality assurance must be adapted in increasingly shorter cycles in order to achieve an economical optimal quality assurance at any time. The realization of an adaptive quality assurance within the production enables manufacturing companies to achieve a minimum of quality-related costs at any time despite an increasing individualization up to lot size one. Due to their high degree of swiftness regarding data acquisition, data processing and output of data in real-time, and furthermore, their capability to control physical elements with computer-based algorithms in an intertwined way, cyber-physical systems (CPS) are predestined to perform an adaptive quality assurance within the production. But, no approach towards an adaptive quality assurance, which is performed by a cyber-physical system in order to achieve a minimum of quality-related costs at any time despite an increasing individualization of manufactured products up to lot size one, has been described in literature yet. This paper fills the gap by showing an approach towards an adaptive quality assurance within the production, which is performed by a cyber-physical system

    Remanufacturing process capability maturity model

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    Remanufacturing is a key discipline at the end of a product's life or use cycle. Besides the economic advantages, remanufacturing is also more ecological compared to the new production of parts. Due to the rising amount of product variants and the resulting increasing process complexity, as well as the dirty old parts used, remanufacturing processes face different challenges than processes in new productions. Unfortunately, there are hardly any tools available to analyze and compare remanufacturing processes. Therefore, this paper shows the results of an analysis of remanufacturing operations by using a capability maturity model

    Development of a performance measurement system for international reverse supply chains

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    In times of globally connected production networks, supply chain management is a key discipline of modern living. Due to increasing commodity prizes and a greater awareness of resource efficiency, the relevance of international reverse supply chains is increasing. Unfortunately, there is a lack of knowledge when it comes to the assessment of international reverse supply chains. To close this lack, scientists from Bayreuth defined a performance measurement system to assess international reverse supply chains. The aim of this paper is to support the Circular Economy and the remanufacturing industry with an approach to optimize international reverse supply chains and thus to become more sustainable

    Modularization in material flow simulation for managing production releases in remanufacturing

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    Remanufacturing is recognized as a major circular economy option to recover and upgrade functions from post-use products. However, the inefficiencies associated with operations, mainly due to the uncertainty and variability of material flows and product conditions, undermine the growth of remanufacturing. With the objective of supporting the design and management of more proficient and robust remanufacturing processes, this paper proposes a generic and reconfigurable simulation model of remanufacturing systems. The developed model relies upon a modular framework that enables the user to handle multiple process settings and production control policies, among which token-based policies. Customizable to the characteristics of the process under analysis, this model can support logistics performance evaluation of different production control policies, thus enabling the selection of the optimal policy in specific business contexts. The proposed model is applied to a real remanufacturing environment in order to validate and demonstrate its applicability and benefits in the industrial settings

    Identification of Approaches for Remanufacturing 4.0

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    The complexity within products, services and industrial production is constantly increasing. Due to the trend of mass production towards lot size `one', topics like rationalization, optimization or Lean Management were followed by almost all companies during the last decades. Especially the industrial segment of remanufacturing is affected by this trend, which issues in small lot sizes and low volumes. Different strategies and approaches of Industry 4.0 were developed during the last years for the manufacturing but not for the remanufacturing industry. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to identify challenges of the remanufacturing industry and furthermore approaches of Industry 4.0 to face these challenges

    Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch: report of The Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission on planetary health.

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    Earth's natural systems represent a growing threat to human health. And yet, global health has mainly improved as these changes have gathered pace. What is the explanation? As a Commission, we are deeply concerned that the explanation is straightforward and sobering: we have been mortgaging the health of future generations to realise economic and development gains in the present. By unsustainably exploiting nature's resources, human civilisation has fl ourished but now risks substantial health eff ects from the degradation of nature's life support systems in the future. Health eff ects from changes to the environment including climatic change, ocean acidifi cation, land degradation, water scarcity, overexploitation of fi sheries, and biodiversity loss pose serious challenges to the global health gains of the past several decades and are likely to become increasingly dominant during the second half of this century and beyond. These striking trends are driven by highly inequitable, ineffi cient, and unsustainable patterns of resource consumption and technological development, together with population growth. We identify three categories of challenges that have to be addressed to maintain and enhance human health in the face of increasingly harmful environmental trends. Firstly, conceptual and empathy failures (imagination challenges), such as an over-reliance on gross domestic product as a measure of human progress, the failure to account for future health and environmental harms over present day gains, and the disproportionate eff ect of those harms on the poor and those in developing nations. Secondly, knowledge failures (research and information challenges), such as failure to address social and environmental drivers of ill health, a historical scarcity of transdisciplinary research and funding, together with an unwillingness or inability to deal with uncertainty within decision making frameworks. Thirdly, implementation failures (governance challenges), such as how governments and institutions delay recognition and responses to threats, especially when faced with uncertainties, pooled common resources, and time lags between action and eff ect. Although better evidence is needed to underpin appropriate policies than is available at present, this should not be used as an excuse for inaction. Substantial potential exists to link action to reduce environmental damage with improved health outcomes for nations at all levels of economic development. This Commission identifi es opportunities for action by six key constituencies: health professionals, research funders and the academic community, the UN and Bretton Woods bodies, governments, investors and corporate reporting bodies, and civil society organisations. Depreciation of natural capital and nature's subsidy should be accounted for so that economy and nature are not falsely separated. Policies should balance social progress, environmental sustainability, and the economy. To support a world population of 9-10 billion people or more, resilient food and agricultural systems are needed to address both undernutrition and overnutrition, reduce waste, diversify diets, and minimise environmental damage. Meeting the need for modern family planning can improve health in the short termeg, from reduced maternal mortality and reduced pressures on the environment and on infrastructure. Planetary health off ers an unprecedented opportunity for advocacy of global and national reforms of taxes and subsidies for many sectors of the economy, including energy, agriculture, water, fi sheries, and health. Regional trade treaties should act to further incorporate the protection of health in the near and long term. Several essential steps need to be taken to transform the economy to support planetary health. These steps include a reduction of waste through the creation of products that are more durable and require less energy and materials to manufacture than those often produced at present; the incentivisation of recycling, reuse, and repair; and the substitution of hazardous materials with safer alternatives. Despite present limitations, the Sustainable Development Goals provide a great opportunity to integrate health and sustainability through the judicious selection of relevant indicators relevant to human wellbeing, the enabling infrastructure for development, and the supporting natural systems, together with the need for strong governance. The landscape, ecosystems, and the biodiversity they contain can be managed to protect natural systems, and indirectly, reduce human disease risk. Intact and restored ecosystems can contribute to resilience (see panel 1 for glossary of terms used in this report), for example, through improved coastal protection (eg, through wave attenuation) and the ability of fl oodplains and greening of river catchments to protect from river fl ooding events by diverting and holding excess water. The growth in urban populations emphasises the importance of policies to improve health and the urban environment, such as through reduced air pollution, increased physical activity, provision of green space, and urban planning to prevent sprawl and decrease the magnitude of urban heat islands. Transdisciplinary research activities and capacity need substantial and urgent expansion. Present research limitations should not delay action. In situations where technology and knowledge can deliver win-win solutions and co-benefi ts, rapid scale-up can be achieved if researchers move ahead and assess the implementation of potential solutions. Recent scientifi c investments towards understanding non-linear state shifts in ecosystems are very important, but in the absence of improved understanding and predictability of such changes, eff orts to improve resilience for human health and adaptation strategies remain a priority. The creation of integrated surveillance systems that collect rigorous health, socioeconomic, and environmental data for defi ned populations over long time periods can provide early detection of emerging disease outbreaks or changes in nutrition and non-communicable disease burden. The improvement of risk communication to policy makers and the public and the support of policy makers to make evidence-informed decisions can be helped by an increased capacity to do systematic reviews and the provision of rigorous policy briefs. Health professionals have an essential role in the achievement of planetary health: working across sectors to integrate policies that advance health and environmental sustainability, tackling health inequities, reducing the environmental impacts of health systems, and increasing the resilience of health systems and populations to environmental change. Humanity can be stewarded successfully through the 21st century by addressing the unacceptable inequities in health and wealth within the environmental limits of the Earth, but this will require the generation of new knowledge, implementation of wise policies, decisive action, and inspirational leadership

    Societal transformation in response to global environmental change: a review of emerging concepts

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    The study of societal transformation in response to environmental change has become established, yet little consensus exists regarding the conceptual basis of transformation. This paper aims to provide structure to the dialog on transformation, and to reflect on the challenges of social research in this area. Concepts of transformation are identified through a literature review, and examined using four analytical criteria. It is found that the term ‘transformation’ is frequently used merely as a metaphor. When transformation is not used as a metaphor, eight concepts are most frequently employed. They differ with respect to (i) system conceptualization, (ii) notions of social consciousness (deliberate/emergent), and (iii) outcome (prescriptive/descriptive). Problem-based research tends to adopt concepts of deliberate transformation with prescriptive outcome, while concepts of emergent transformation with no prescriptive outcome tend to inform descriptive-analytical research. Dialog around the complementarities of different concepts and their empirical testing are priorities for future research
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