88 research outputs found

    On the Duality of Probing and Fault Attacks

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    In this work we investigate the problem of simultaneous privacy and integrity protection in cryptographic circuits. We consider a white-box scenario with a powerful, yet limited attacker. A concise metric for the level of probing and fault security is introduced, which is directly related to the capabilities of a realistic attacker. In order to investigate the interrelation of probing and fault security we introduce a common mathematical framework based on the formalism of information and coding theory. The framework unifies the known linear masking schemes. We proof a central theorem about the properties of linear codes which leads to optimal secret sharing schemes. These schemes provide the lower bound for the number of masks needed to counteract an attacker with a given strength. The new formalism reveals an intriguing duality principle between the problems of probing and fault security, and provides a unified view on privacy and integrity protection using error detecting codes. Finally, we introduce a new class of linear tamper-resistant codes. These are eligible to preserve security against an attacker mounting simultaneous probing and fault attacks

    SCRAMBLE-CFI: Mitigating Fault-Induced Control-Flow Attacks on OpenTitan

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    Secure elements physically exposed to adversaries are frequently targeted by fault attacks. These attacks can be utilized to hijack the control-flow of software allowing the attacker to bypass security measures, extract sensitive data, or gain full code execution. In this paper, we systematically analyze the threat vector of fault-induced control-flow manipulations on the open-source OpenTitan secure element. Our thorough analysis reveals that current countermeasures of this chip either induce large area overheads or still cannot prevent the attacker from exploiting the identified threats. In this context, we introduce SCRAMBLE-CFI, an encryption-based control-flow integrity scheme utilizing existing hardware features of OpenTitan. SCRAMBLE-CFI confines, with minimal hardware overhead, the impact of fault-induced control-flow attacks by encrypting each function with a different encryption tweak at load-time. At runtime, code only can be successfully decrypted when the correct decryption tweak is active. We open-source our hardware changes and release our LLVM toolchain automatically protecting programs. Our analysis shows that SCRAMBLE-CFI complementarily enhances security guarantees of OpenTitan with a negligible hardware overhead of less than 3.97 % and a runtime overhead of 7.02 % for the Embench-IoT benchmarks.Comment: Accepted at GLSVLSI'2

    An Efficient Side-Channel Protected AES Implementation with Arbitrary Protection Order

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    Passive physical attacks, like power analysis, pose a serious threat to the security of digital circuits. In this work, we introduce an efficient sidechannel protected Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) hardware design that is completely scalable in terms of protection order. Therefore, we revisit the private circuits scheme of Ishai et al. [13] which is known to be vulnerable to glitches. We demonstrate how to achieve resistance against multivariate higher-order attacks in the presence of glitches for the same randomness cost as the private circuits scheme. Although our AES design is scalable, it is smaller, faster, and less randomness demanding than other side-channel protected AES implementations. Our first-order secure AES design, for example, requires only 18 bits of randomness per S-box operation and 6 kGE of chip area. We demonstrate the flexibility of our AES implementation by synthesizing it up to the 15th protection order