527 research outputs found

    Climate ambitions for European aviation : Where can sustainable aviation fuels bring us?

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    This paper assesses the costs of policies to promote the uptake of sustainable aviation fuels to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of aviation in the EU. Different policies for attaining a minimum sustainable aviation fuel share are assessed, taking into account sustainability requirements and the costs and potential of feedstock supply. The cost-effectiveness of these policies is compared to simpler CORSIA-type emission trading schemes, using a model that combines the demand functions for road, rail and maritime transport fuels, the supply functions of the related feedstocks as well as the environmental sustainability characteristics of the fuels. For aviation a distinction is made between fuel demand for intra-EU flights and for incoming and outbound EU flights. It is shown that policies that aim to achieve a minimum share of 3.5% or 5.25% sustainable aviation fuels by 2030 in the EU are 5–10 times more expensive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions than a simpler emission trading mechanism like CORSIA

    Optimal planning of an urban ferry service operated with zero emission technology

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    While passenger-only ferries can be an effective instrument in mitigating road congestion in urban areas, they are among the most polluting modes of transportation. This paper studies technical and economic feasibilities of a battery-powered high-speed ferry service in Oslo, Norway. An urban ferry planner problem that minimizes ferry operator and passenger costs and external costs of road transport subject to strategic (fleet selection and infrastructure location), tactical (service frequency) and operational (vessel speed) decisions is proposed. While the results show that zero emission technologies can pass the cost-benefit test for a short-range service, competitiveness hinges on energy costs and capacities and on the performance of the existing service. Counterfactual scenarios show substantial cost reductions from altering the current ferry route. Anticipated increase in external costs of road transport from closing the ferry service is also much smaller than the system costs of maintaining the urban ferry connection

    Covid-19 and optimal urban transport policy

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    Covid-19 has important implications for public transport operations. Increased teleworking and the perceived infection risk on public transport vehicles have drastically reduced demand in many cities. At the same time, physical distancing has effectively reduced available peak-period public transport capacity. In this paper, we use a simple model to study the effect of these changes on second-best optimal pricing and frequency provision, assuming that car use is underpriced. A numerical application reflecting the public transport situation in Brussel is provided. Results include the following. First, more telework and the increased perceived infection risk have opposite effects on the fare, so that it may be optimal not to change the fare at all. Optimal frequency is likely to decline. Second, holding the fare and frequency constant at their pre-Covid second-best optimal values, more telework reduces the public transport deficit if car use is underpriced. Third, extending the model to allow for passengers with different vulnerability towards Covid-19, allowing fare and frequency differentiation implies that vulnerable users will face higher fares only if their risk perception is sufficiently higher than that of the non-vulnerable, and car use is not too much underpriced. Occupancy rates will be lower for the vulnerable passengers. Fourth, the numerical results for Brussels show that telework and a high perceived infection risk for workers may yield a welfare optimum whereby commuters do almost not use public transport. Offering a low frequency suffices to deal with the captive demand by school children and students. Lastly, reserved capacity for the vulnerable users and stimuli for walking and biking to school may be useful policies to deal with the crowding risk

    Does Tolling Per Kilometre Compensate for the External Costs of Trucks? A Geographical Approach for Belgium

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    Using detailed Global Navigation Satellite System tracing data emitted by all trucks having a gross vehicle weight of over 3.5 tons in Belgium, this paper assesses the efficiency of the current Belgian distance tax system by analyzing its spatial coverage and the matching of the distance taxes with the external costs, globally and locally. Specifically, three research questions are addressed. First, how well do the present charge rates match with external costs? Second, the operationalization of the system requires a good spatial coverage of truck movements. Does the present system guarantee an almost universal coverage? Third, do the distance charges match the external costs? We find that if the distance tax scheme differentiates regionally, it still misses large variations in noise costs. The current tracing infrastructure also captures only part of the truck operations on the territory. If distance tolls for trucks remain the backbone of the taxation of truck operations, it then needs further refinement in time and space if one wants it to be the major tool to correct for the external costs

    Optimal policies for electromobility: Joint assessment of transport and electricity distribution costs in Norway

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    This paper develops a stylized economic model for passenger transport in the greater Oslo area, in which the agents' choices of car ownership, transport pattern, and electric vehicle (EV) charging are jointly determined. If enough EVs charge during peak hours, costly grid expansions may be needed. We examine how the distribution system operators can mitigate these costs with different pricing schemes and how this, in turn, affects the transport market equilibrium. We find that applying tariffs differentiated between peak and off-peak periods will help strike a better balance between grid investment costs and EV-owners’ disutility of charging during off-peak hours

    Optimal policies for electromobility: Joint assessment of transport and electricity distribution costs in Norway

    No full text
    This paper develops a stylized economic model for passenger transport in the greater Oslo area, in which the agents' choices of car ownership, transport pattern, and electric vehicle (EV) charging are jointly determined. If enough EVs charge during peak hours, costly grid expansions may be needed. We examine how the distribution system operators can mitigate these costs with different pricing schemes and how this, in turn, affects the transport market equilibrium. We find that applying tariffs differentiated between peak and off-peak periods will help strike a better balance between grid investment costs and EV-owners’ disutility of charging during off-peak hours.publishedVersio

    Vehicle choices and urban transport externalities. Are Norwegian policy makers getting it right?

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    Norway has the world’s highest share of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in its passenger car fleet, thanks to a set of policies that has included high purchase taxes for fossil fueled cars, and no tolls, no VAT, and free parking for BEVs. This paper uses a very stylized transport model for the greater Oslo area to give insights into the effects of different transport policies. With this model we go beyond the market penetration studies for EVs, as it brings together both car choice and transport patterns with mode choice for a set of heterogeneous representative model agents. We illustrate the possible effects of current policies on congestion, CO2 emissions and other urban transport externalities, public transport use and crowding, tax revenues and welfare. On this basis, we explore other road toll, public transport fare and tax policies that can lead to better outcomes for the Oslo transport market while still respecting the CO2-cap that reflects the goals of Norwegian policy makers.publishedVersio
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