3,005 research outputs found

    Editorial: Developments of remote sensing and numerical modeling applications for landslide analysis

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    Editorial on the Research Topic Developments of remote sensing and numerical modeling applications for landslide analysi

    THE INFLUENCE OF SLOPE DAMAGE ON THE KINEMATICS OF LANDSLIDES

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    The stability of large rock slopes is controlled by geological, structural, geomorphic, and environmental factors, which define the location, size, and failure mechanism of landslides. However, the stability of a slope can change with time, as a result of the formation and accumulation of slope damage, which weakens the rock mass forming the slope or the rupture surface of the incipient landslide. In this paper, we review three landslide sites, analysing the characteristics of the slope damage, and highlighting its effects on the kinematics of the slope and the evolution of the landslide. We note that, despite the importance of slope damage in controlling the timing and evolution of a slope failure, no frameworks or guidelines currently exist for performing a consistent and systematic analysis. We also emphasize that interdisciplinary approaches should be developed to assist in the quantification and characterization of rock slope damage

    Bristol Deaf Memories: archives, nostalgia and the loss of community space in the deaf community in Bristol

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Taylor & Francis via the DOI in this record.The deaf community in the UK has undergone major changes in recent years, which has uprooted it from its traditional foundations, the deaf club and deaf residential school. This article examines the effect of the closure of the deaf club in Bristol, a city in the South West of England, which resulted in the loss of an important community place and spaces for deaf people in the city. We discuss, with a strong focus on methodology, a community event celebrating Bristol’s deaf heritage organised by the research team which utilised archive materials, including archived actuality footage, this article draws on interview data elicited from participants in that event to explore the meanings connected to space and place in both past and present by the deaf community in Bristol. Concepts of the rhizome and the smooth and striated spaces of Deleuze and Guattari were found to be useful models with which to engage with the contemporary struggles of the deaf community for community recognition and organisation. We also suggest an online mapping application which enables the practice of rhizomatic cartography could be a way forward in preserving the deaf heritage and history of the city.This research was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, grant number AH/M009203/

    Application of discrete fracture networks (DFN) in the stability analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from ARMA.50th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Houston, USA, 26-29 June 2016The failure mechanism of rock slopes is mainly controlled by the strength and orientation of discontinuities within the rock mass. A realistic representation of the joint network within the rock mass is therefore an essential component of stability analysis of rock structures (e.g. rock slopes, tunnels etc.). Discontinuity persistence and connectivity are significant parameters which control the stability of rock slopes. A small percentage of rock bridges on the discontinuity surface can significantly increase its strength and prevent slope failure. Discontinuities within the rock mass are rarely fully connected. In practice, however, discontinuities are often assumed fully persistent due to the difficulties both in mapping and simulation of non-persistence. Discrete fracture networks (DFN) provide a rigorous and convenient tool for the simulation of joint systems within a rock mass. Utilizing statistical methods, DFNs consider the stochastic nature of some key parameters (e.g. persistence and orientation) within numerical models. Discrete fracture network engineering is increasingly used due to recent developments in discontinuity data acquisition techniques (e.g. ground-based digital photogrammetry and laser scanning). Recent development in geomechanical modelling codes and increased computing power have also allowed to either import DFN’s into models or to generate DFN’s within the numerical modelling code itself (e.g. 3DEC). This paper describes the use of photogrammetry at the Delabole slate quarry in Cornwall, UK for remotely acquiring key discontinuity parameter data (orientation, intensity and length) and its subsequent use in developing statistically validated discrete fracture network parameters. The 3D distinct element code, 3DEC, is used for the DFN generation and subsequent stability analysis. Several realizations of the 3DEC-DFN models are run to investigate the stochastic nature of discontinuities within the quarry and their potential influence on the stability of the pit. Finally the simulation results are used to determine the slope instability mechanisms and determine the most likely areas of potential instability

    Measuring attitudes towards Global Learning among future educators in England

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    This paper reports upon a multi-agency approach to measuring attitudes towards global learning among future educators at a university in the north-west of England. This study provides a response to concerns that global learning research and evaluation of global education interventions tend to focus upon short-term, observable outcomes rather than longer-term changes in behaviour, attitude, and practice. It is based upon the assumption that global learning in teacher education must focus upon the development of who the educator is as a person, including his or her values, attitudes, and associated dispositions. This paper will outline the process of constructing an attitude inventory, based upon Thurstone scaling, by a range of professionals working in local government, teacher education, and non-government organizations that promote global education. It reports upon the use of this survey at the beginning, middle, and end of a compulsory course completed by a cohort of 154 undergraduate students of primary teacher education. The findings show positive changes in attitudes towards global learning among females and eradication of the most negative attitudes towards global learning during the course of study. Causal factors relating to cultural practice are suggested. The limitations of this particular tool for researching global learning are discussed alongside the insight gained from this collaborative process of evaluation

    A case study integrating remote sensing and distinct element analysis to quarry slope stability assessment in the Monte Altissimo area, Italy

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.09.003. First available online 22 September 2014Over last decade geomatic techniques have been increasingly used for the geometrical characterization of rock slopes. Terrestrial laser scanning and digital terrestrial photogrammetry in particular are now frequently used in the characterization of joint surfaces and slope geometry. Although the use of these techniques for the structural characterization of slopes is widely documented, limited research has been undertaken to improve our understanding of the importance of the derived data quality in the construction of slope geometry imported into 3D numerical models. One of the most common problems encountered in the use of these techniques, especially in case of slopes with complex geometry, is the presence of occlusions. In this context, the aims of this paper are to describe how the integrated use of terrestrial laser scanning, digital terrestrial photogrammetry and topographic surveys can mitigate the influence of occlusions and how the slope geometry gained from these surveys can be important in slope stability analyses. For this purpose a case study in the Monte Altissimo area (Apuan Alps, Italy) will be presented. Several geomatic techniques were used for studying a slope overhanging the Granolesa quarry. Special emphasis will be given to the importance of using Total Station and Differential GPS surveys as tools for data fusion. Moreover, in order to validate this procedure, the accuracy and precision of the output were determined through comparison of 3D models derived from laser scanning and digital terrestrial photogrammetry.Furthermore, two different analyses with the three-dimensional distinct element code, 3DEC, were carried out in order to highlight the advantages and limitations of using data obtained from terrestrial remote sensing techniques as opposed to models based on topographic maps.The authors wish to thank the Tuscany Region which funded this research (Announcement 6744/2008 POR CREO 2007–2013). Moreover, we are extremely grateful to Henraux S.p.A., Prof. Pier Lorenzo Fantozzi (University of Siena), Geol. Sergio Mancini, Geol. Vinicio Lorenzoni and Ing. Matteo Lapini (Ingeo Systems s.r.l.) for their assistance and advices in this research

    A combined field/remote sensing approach for characterizing landslide risk in coastal areas

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.Understanding the key factors controlling slope failure mechanisms in coastal areas is the first and most important step for analyzing, reconstructing and predicting the scale, location and extent of future instability in rocky coastlines. Different failure mechanisms may be possible depending on the influence of the engineering properties of the rock mass (including the fracture network), the persistence and type of discontinuity and the relative aspect or orientation of the coastline. Using a section of the North Coast of Cornwall, UK, as an example we present a multi-disciplinary approach for characterizing landslide risk associated with coastal instabilities in a blocky rock mass. Remotely captured terrestrial and aerial LiDAR and photogrammetric data was interrogated using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques to provide a framework for subsequent analysis, interpretation and validation. The remote sensing mapping data was used to define the rock mass discontinuity network of the area and to differentiate between major and minor geological structures controlling the evolution of the North Coast of Cornwall. Kinematic instability maps generated from aerial LiDAR data using GIS techniques and results from structural and engineering geological surveys are presented. With this method, it was possible to highlight the types of kinematic failure mechanism that may generate coastal landslides and highlight areas that are more susceptible to instability or increased risk of future instability. Multi-temporal aerial LiDAR data and orthophotos were also studied using GIS techniques to locate recent landslide failures, validate the results obtained from the kinematic instability maps through site observations and provide improved understanding of the factors controlling the coastal geomorphology. The approach adopted is not only useful for academic research, but also for local authorities and consultancy's when assessing the likely risks of coastal instability
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