41 research outputs found

    Social Bonds and White-Collar Crime: A Two-Study Assessment of Informal Social Controls in White-Collar Offenders

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    In two studies, this paper examines age-graded informal social controls (bonds) in white-collar offenders. Using register data, Study 1 compares bonds in a sample of white-collar offenders to a matched control sample, while Study 2 uses probation data to examine bonds within a subsample of white-collar offenders of Study 1. The results show that white-collar offen- ders, including those who occupy executive positions and those with an adult-crime onset, were characterized by weakened bonds and that early- onset offenders had weaker bonds than adult-onset offenders. Along with the implications of these findings for theory, limitations and directions for future research are presented

    Using qualitative and quantitative methods to choose a habitat quality metric for air pollution policy evaluation

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    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined qualitative and quantitative approach taken to elucidate the priorities of conservation professionals could be usefully applied in other contexts

    George Whitman's promotion to Lt. Colonel, March 13, 1865.

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    This official certificate announcing the promotion of George Whitman to Lieutenant Colonel on March 13, 1865 is signed by Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, and President Andrew Johnson.President of the United States of America To all who shall see these presents greeting: Know Ye That I do hereby confer on George W. Whitman of the U. S. Volunteers in the service of the United States by and with the advise and consent of the Senate the rank of Lieutenant Colonel by Brevet in said service to rank as such from the thirteenth day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty five; for gallant and meritorious services during the war. And I do strictly charge and require all Officers and Soldiers under his command to obey and respect him accordingly and he is to observe and follow such orders and directions from time to time as he shall receive from me or the future President of the United States of America and other Officers set over him according to law and the rules and discipline of war: This Commission to continue in force during the pleasure or the President of the United States for the time being. Given under my hand at the City of Washington this Twenty Second day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and Sixty Six and in the ninetieth year of the Independence of the United States. By the President Signed Andrews Johnson and Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War At the top: Recorded Volume 4, Page 119 Adjutant General’s Office May 22, 1866 E D Townsend Asst. Adj. General.delet

    Disillusionment and Change: A Cognitive-Emotional Theory of Gang Exit

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    Exit from street gangs has received increased attention in recent years; however, a number of important questions regarding the process of leaving remain unanswered. Relying on identity theory, we present a cognitive-emotional theory of gang exit that emphasizes functional dimensions of anger in terms of motivating individuals to pursue identity change related to gang membership. Specifically, anger provides gang members with an opportunity to identify the gang as a major source of their problems. According to identity theory, anger is generated when there is an inability to meet an identity standard. This article argues that an inability to meet identity goals produces disillusionment and anger, which reduces the relative importance of the gang identity and facilitates exit from gangs

    Development of a Real-Time PCR for Identification of Brachyspira Species in Human Colonic Biopsies

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    Background: Brachyspira species are fastidious anaerobic microorganisms, that infect the colon of various animals. The genus contains both important pathogens of livestock as well as commensals. Two species are known to infect humans: B. aalborgi and B. pilosicoli. There is some evidence suggesting that the veterinary pathogenic B. pilosicoli is a potential zoonotic agent, however, since diagnosis in humans is based on histopathology of colon biopsies, species identification is not routinely performed in human materials. Methods: The study population comprised 57 patients with microscopic evidence of Brachyspira infection and 26 patients with no histopathological evidence of Brachyspira infection. Concomitant faecal samples were available from three infected patients. Based on publically available 16S rDNA gene sequences of all Brachyspira species, species-specific primer sets were designed. DNA was extracted and tested by real-time PCR and 16S rDNA was sequenced. Results: Sensitivity and specificity for identification of Brachyspira species in colon biopsies was 100% and 87.7% respectively. Sequencing revealed B. pilosicoli in 15.4% of patients, B. aalborgi in 76.9% and a third species, tentatively named ‘‘Brachyspira hominis’’, in 26.2%. Ten patients (12.3%) had a double and two (3.1%) a triple infection. The presence of Brachyspira pilosicoli was significantly associated with inflammatory changes in the colon-biopsy (p = 0.028). Conclusions: This newly designed PCR allows for sub-differentiation of Brachyspira species in patient material and thus allows large-scaled surveillance studies to elucidate the pathogenicity of human Brachyspira infections. One-third of affected patients appeared to be infected with a novel species

    A systematic review of school-based sexual health interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Background The HIV/AIDS epidemic remains of global significance and there is a need to target (a) the adolescent age-groups in which most new infections occur; and (b) sub-Saharan Africa where the greatest burden of the epidemic lies. A focused systematic review of school-based sexual health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to prevent HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) in this age group was therefore conducted. Methods Searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, Cinahl and PsychINFO according to agreed a priori criteria for studies published between 1986 and 2006. Further searches were conducted in UNAIDS and WHO (World Health Organization) websites, and 'Google'. Relevant journals were hand-searched and references cited in identified articles were followed up. Data extraction and quality assessment was carried out on studies selected for full text appraisal, and results were analysed and presented in narrative format. Results Some 1,020 possible titles and abstracts were found, 23 full text articles were critically appraised, and 12 articles (10 studies) reviewed, reflecting the paucity of published studies conducted relative to the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge and attitude-related outcomes were the most associated with statistically significant change. Behavioural intentions were more difficult to change and actual behaviour change was least likely to occur. Behaviour change in favour of abstinence and condom use appeared to be greatly influenced by pre-intervention sexual history. Conclusion There is a great need in sub-Saharan Africa for well-evaluated and effective school-based sexual health interventions

    Letter, Edwin Stanton to M.D. Phillips, February 3, 1868

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    This handwritten letter, dated February 3, 1868, is from Edwin Stanton, an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War, to M.D. Phillips. The letter is an acknowledgment of Phillips\u27 kind sentiments. This letter was found tipped into volume five, between pages 124-125 of Abraham Lincoln : A History by John G. Nicolay and John Hay.https://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/fvw-manuscripts-nicolay-and-hay-documents/1031/thumbnail.jp
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