427 research outputs found

    Community Safety and the Night Time Economy: a report for Gloucestershire Office for the Police and Crime Commissioner

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    This report presents the findings from a three-year project that examined issues related to crime, crime reduction, and community safety in Gloucestershire‚Äôs Night Time Economy. ‚ÄėNight Time Economy‚Äô (NTE) is the term used in this report to refer to economic activity that takes place between 6pm and 6am. The project was funded by the Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner for Gloucestershire between September 2014 and December 2017, and was conducted by a research team from the school of Natural and Social Sciences at the University of Gloucestershire

    Business crime reduction partnerships: examining a holistic approach

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    Purpose There has been a widespread move in England’s city centres to a Business Crime Reduction Partnership (BCRP) model that welcomes businesses from all commercial sectors and that operate during day time and night time trading hours, and that seeks to tackle a broad range of crimes and associated behaviours. This article considers whether this new holistic approach offers benefits that narrower models do not. Design/methodology/approach This study draws upon data from a multi-year examination of the Gloucester City Safe BCRP, including quantitative analysis of 4523 offences recorded by the partnership and qualitative analysis of 149 interviews with its members. Findings In Gloucester there was a small minority of offenders who commit offences against more than one type of business, who offend during both the day time and night time trading hours and who commit more than one type of offence. There is value, therefore, in partnerships bringing together businesses from different commercial sectors and that operate in the day and night time economies to coordinate their efforts to tackle such activity. Practical implications Sharing information among partnership members via email and secure web-based platforms helps raise awareness concerning offenders and the offences that they commit which in turn can be used to prevent offences from occurring. Social implications This inclusive holistic BCRP model can lead to an increased sense of community cohesion for its members arising from the collective effort of multiple types of businesses. Originality/value The authors are not aware of other studies that have considered these issues

    Psychiatric disorders and risk of subsequent dementia: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

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    OBJECTIVES: Although psychiatric disorders have been found to be associated with increased risk of dementia, previous findings are mixed, and the nature of these relationships remains poorly understood. We examined longitudinal associations between depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), bipolar disorder (BPD), psychotic disorders and subsequent dementia. METHODS: We searched three databases for longitudinal, population-based studies investigating associations between psychiatric disorders and dementia (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020209638). We conducted narrative synthesis, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. We used meta-regression and stratified analyses to examine variation by sex, age-at-onset and follow-up time. RESULTS: Fifty-seven citations met eligibility criteria. Most studies focussed on depression (n = 33), which was associated with subsequent all-cause dementia (pooled relative risk [RR]: 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.59-2.43; I2  = 96.5%), Alzheimer's Disease (pooled RR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.52-2.38; I2  = 85.5%), and Vascular Dementia (pooled RR: 2.71, 95% CI: 2.48-2.97; I2  = 0). Associations were stronger in studies with shorter follow-up periods and for severe and late-onset depression. Findings regarding anxiety were mixed, and we did not find evidence of an overall association (pooled RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.96-1.45; I2  = 52.2%, n = 5). Despite sparse evidence, psychotic disorders (pooled RR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.44-3.31; I2  = 99%), PTSD and BPD were associated with subsequent dementia. CONCLUSIONS: People with psychiatric disorders represent high-risk groups for dementia, highlighting the importance of ongoing symptom monitoring in these groups. Findings regarding temporality and age-at-onset indicate that depression symptoms could reflect prodromal dementia for some individuals. Further longitudinal research is required to determine whether psychiatric disorders represent causal risk factors or early markers of dementia neuropathology

    Intelligence within BAOR and NATO's Northern Army Group

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    During the Cold War the UK's principal military role was its commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) through the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR), together with wartime command of NATO's Northern Army Group. The possibility of a surprise attack by the numerically superior Warsaw Pact forces ensured that great importance was attached to intelligence, warning and rapid mobilisation. As yet we know very little about the intelligence dimension of BAOR and its interface with NATO allies. This article attempts to address these neglected issues, ending with the impact of the 1973 Yom Kippur War upon NATO thinking about warning and surprise in the mid-1970s. It concludes that the arrangements made by Whitehall for support to BAOR from national assets during crisis or transition to war were - at best - improbable. Accordingly, over the years, BAOR developed its own unique assets in the realm of both intelligence collection and special operations in order to prepare for the possible outbreak of conflict
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