2,232 research outputs found

    A selective inhibitor of the sperm-specific potassium channel SLO3 impairs human sperm function.

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    To fertilize an oocyte, the membrane potential of both mouse and human sperm must hyperpolarize (become more negative inside). Determining the molecular mechanisms underlying this hyperpolarization is vital for developing new contraceptive methods and detecting causes of idiopathic male infertility. In mouse sperm, hyperpolarization is caused by activation of the sperm-specific potassium (K+) channel SLO3 [C. M. Santi et al. FEBS Lett. 584, 1041-1046 (2010)]. In human sperm, it has long been unclear whether hyperpolarization depends on SLO3 or the ubiquitous K+ channel SLO1 [N. Mannowetz, N. M. Naidoo, S. A. S. Choo, J. F. Smith, P. V. Lishko, Elife 2, e01009 (2013), C. Brenker et al. Elife 3, e01438 (2014), and S. A. Mansell, S. J. Publicover, C. L. R. Barratt, S. M. Wilson, Mol. Hum. Reprod. 20, 392-408 (2014)]. In this work, we identified the first selective inhibitor for human SLO3-VU0546110-and showed that it completely blocked heterologous SLO3 currents and endogenous K+ currents in human sperm. This compound also prevented sperm from hyperpolarizing and undergoing hyperactivated motility and induced acrosome reaction, which are necessary to fertilize an egg. We conclude that SLO3 is the sole K+ channel responsible for hyperpolarization and significantly contributes to the fertilizing ability of human sperm. Moreover, SLO3 is a good candidate for contraceptive development, and mutation of this gene is a possible cause of idiopathic male infertility.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Reliability and Failure Mode of Ti-Base Abutments Supported by Narrow/Wide Implant Systems

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    To assess the reliability and failure modes of Ti-base abutments supported by narrow and wide-diameter implant systems. Narrow (Ø3.5 × 10 mm) and wide (Ø5 × 10 mm) implant systems of two different manufacturers with internal conical connections (16°) and their respective Ti-base abutments (3.5 and 4.5 mm) were evaluated. Ti-base abutments were torqued to the implants, standardized metallic maxillary incisor crowns were cemented, and step stress accelerated life testing of eighteen assemblies per group was performed in three loading profiles: mild, moderate, and aggressive until fracture or suspension. Reliability for missions of 100,000 cycles at 100 and 150 N was calculated, and fractographic analysis was performed. For missions at 100 N for 100,000 cycles, both narrow and wide implant systems exhibited a high probability of survival (≥99%, CI: 94–100%) without significant differences. At 150 N, wide-diameter implants presented higher reliability (≥99%, CI: 99–100%) compared to narrow implants (86%, CI: 61–95%), with no significant differences among manufacturers. Failure mode predominantly involved Ti-base abutment fractures at the abutment platform. Ti-base abutments supported by narrow and wide implant systems presented high reliability for physiologic masticatory forces, whereas for high load-bearing applications, wide-diameter implants presented increased reliability. Failures were confined to abutment fractures

    An engineering perspective of ceramics applied in dental reconstructions

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    The demands for dental materials continue to grow, driven by the desire to reach a better performance than currently achieved by the available materials. In the dental restorative ceramic field, the structures evolved from the metal-ceramic systems to highly translucent multilayered zirconia, aiming not only for tailored mechanical properties but also for the aesthetics to mimic natural teeth. Ceramics are widely used in prosthetic dentistry due to their attractive clinical properties, including high strength, biocompatibility, chemical stability, and a good combination of optical properties. Metal-ceramics type has always been the golden standard of dental reconstruction. However, this system lacks aesthetic aspects. For this reason, efforts are made to develop materials that met both the mechanical features necessary for the safe performance of the restoration as well as the aesthetic aspects, aiming for a beautiful smile. In this field, glass and high-strength core ceramics have been highly investigated for applications in dental restoration due to their excellent combination of mechanical properties and translucency. However, since these are recent materials when compared with the metal-ceramic system, many studies are still required to guarantee the quality and longevity of these systems. Therefore, a background on available dental materials properties is a starting point to provoke a discussion on the development of potential alternatives to rehabilitate lost hard and soft tissue structures with ceramic-based tooth and implant-supported reconstructions. This review aims to bring the most recent materials research of the two major categories of ceramic restorations: ceramic-metal system and all-ceramic restorations. The practical aspects are herein presented regarding the evolution and development of materials, technologies applications, strength, color, and aesthetics. A trend was observed to use high-strength core ceramics type due to their ability to be manufactured by CAD/CAM technology. In addition, the impacts of COVID-19 on the market of dental restorative ceramics are presented

    PIRCHE-II scores prove useful as a predictive biomarker among kidney transplant recipients with rejection: An analysis of indication and follow-up biopsies

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    BackgroundIndication biopsies for deterioration of kidney allograft function often require follow-up biopsies to assess treatment response or lack of improvement. Immune-mediated injury, namely borderline rejection (BLR), T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR), or antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), results from preformed or de novo alloreactivity due to donor and recipient HLA-mismatches. The impact of HLA-mismatches on alloreactivity is determined by highly immunogenic HLA-epitopes.MethodsWe analyzed 123 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) from 2009 to 2019 who underwent a first indication and a follow-up biopsy. KTRs were divided into three groups according to the first biopsy: No rejection (NR)/BLR (n=68); TCMR (n=21); ABMR (n=34). The HLA-derived epitope-mismatches were calculated using the Predicted Indirectly Recognizable HLA-Epitopes (PIRCHE-II) algorithm.ResultsGroup NR/BLR: KTRs with higher total PIRCHE-II scores were more likely to develop TCMR in the follow-up biopsy (p=0.031). Interestingly, these differences were significant for both HLA-class I- (p=0.017) and HLA-class II-derived (p=0.017) PIRCHE-II scores. Group TCMR: KTRs with ongoing TCMR in the follow-up biopsy were more likely to show higher total PIRCHE-II scores (median 101.50 vs. 74.00). Group ABMR: KTRs with higher total PIRCHE-II scores were more likely to show an increase in the microvascular inflammation score in the follow-up biopsy. This difference was more pronounced for the HLA-class II-derived PIRCHE-II scores (median 70.00 vs. 31.76; p=0.086).ConclusionsPIRCHE-II scores may prove useful as a biomarker to predict the histopathological changes of immune-related injury from a first indication to a follow-up biopsy. This immunological risk stratification may contribute to individualized treatment strategies

    Clinical outcomes of all‐ceramic single crowns and fixed dental prostheses supported by ceramic implants: A systematic review and meta‐analyses

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    Objective: To analyze the clinical outcomes of all-ceramic single crowns (SCs) and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) supported by ceramic implants. Materials and methods: Based on a focused question and customized PICO framework, electronic (Medline/EMBASE/Cochrane) and manual searches for studies reporting the clinical outcomes of all-ceramic SCs and FDPs supported by ceramic implants ≥12 months were performed. The primary outcomes were reconstruction survival and the chipping proportion. The secondary outcomes were implant survival, technical complications, and patient-related outcome measurements. Meta-analyses were performed after 1, 2, and 5 years using random-effect meta-analyses. Results: Eight of the 1,403 initially screened titles and 55 full texts were included. Five reported on monolithic lithium disilicate (LS2) SCs, one on veneered zirconia SCs, and two on veneered zirconia SCs and FDPs, which reported all on cement-retained reconstructions (mean observation: 12.0-61.0 months). Meta-analyses estimated a 5-year survival rate of 94% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82%-100%) for overall implant survival. Reconstruction survival proportions after 5 years were: monolithic LS2, 100% (95%CI: 95%-100%); veneered zirconia SCs, 89% (95%CI: 62%-100%); and veneered zirconia FDPs 94% (95%CI: 81%-100%). The chipping proportion after 5 years was: monolithic LS2, 2% (95%CI: 0%-11%); veneered zirconia SCs, 38% (95%CI: 24%-54%); and veneered zirconia FDPs, 57% (95%CI: 38%-76%). Further outcomes were summarized descriptively. Conclusions: Due to the limited data available, only tendencies could be identified. All-ceramic reconstructions supported by ceramic implants demonstrated promising survival rates after mid-term observation. However, high chipping proportions of veneered zirconia SCs and, particularly, FDPs diminished the overall outcome. Monolithic LS2 demonstrated fewer clinical complications. Monolithic reconstructions could be a valid treatment option for ceramic implants. Keywords: ceramics; dental implants; implant-supported dental prosthesis; meta-analysis; survival analysis; systematic review; treatment outcome; zirconia

    Failure Load and Fatigue Behavior of Monolithic and Bi-Layer Zirconia Fixed Dental Prostheses Bonded to One-Piece Zirconia Implants

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    No evidence-based prosthetic treatment concept for 3-unit fixed-dental-prostheses (FDPs) on ceramic implants is currently available. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the failure load and fatigue behavior of monolithic and bi-layer zirconia FDPs supported by one-piece ceramic implants. Eighty 3-unit FDPs supported by 160 zirconia-implants (ceramic.implant; vitaclinical) were divided into 4 groups (n = 20 each): Group Z-HT: 3Y-TZP monolithic-zirconia (Vita-YZ-HT); Group Z-ST: 4Y-TZP monolithic-zirconia (Vita-YZ-ST); Group FL: 3Y-TZP zirconia (Vita-YZ-HT) with facial-veneer (Vita-VM9); Group RL (Rapid-layer): PICN “table-top” (Vita-Enamic), 3Y-TZP-framework (Vita-YZ-HT). Half of the test samples (n = 10/group) were fatigued in a mouth-motion chewing-simulator (F = 98 N, 1.2 million-cycles) with simultaneous thermocycling (5–55 °C). All specimens (fatigued and non-fatigued) were afterwards exposed to single-load-to-failure-testing (Z010, Zwick). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, Tukey’s post-hoc tests and two-sample t-tests (p p = 0.714), the choice of material had a significant effect (p < 0.001). Material FL recorded the highest failure loads, followed by Z-ST, Z-HT and RL, both with and without fatigue application. Taken together, all tested FDP material combinations survived chewing forces that exceeded physiological levels. Bi-Layer FL and monolithic Z-ST showed the highest resilience and might serve as reliable prosthetic reconstruction concepts for 3-unit FDPs on ceramic implants

    Is it time to rethink education and training? : learning how to perform under pressure ; an observational study

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    Emergency medicine workers are exposed daily to various stressors, especially work-related stress, which have been aggravated by the current SARS-CoV 2 pandemic and impact their physical and mental wellbeing. Nonetheless, although the efficacy of programs and strategies to improving the health of medical staff and patient care has been demonstrated, such programs and strategies are scarce. To assess the prevalence, types and consequences of stress in emergency medical workers in healthcare institutions and explore tools to cope with stressful situations at workplace. Two surveys were conducted. Survey 1 assessed the subjective stress levels and stressors of 21 emergency medicine professionals. Survey 2 was conducted amongst 103 healthcare workers at 3 hospitals in Germany. It comprised selected aspects of the German Mental Risk Assessment and a validated workload scale. None. The answer frequencies on Likert scales were descriptively evaluated. Survey 1: Emergency medical professionals experienced and reported the following high stress levels in acute situations: multitasking during a complex situation; factors associated with the work environment; fear of not appropriately controlling the situation; and lack of sleep. Survey 2: The highest stress levels were experienced in the areas “work environment” and “work organization.” The highest scores on the workload scale were obtained for statements on work division, exhaustion, insufficient patient care due to time constraints, regulations, and lack of information. Approximately 80% of healthcare workers had experienced emotionally stressful situations at the workplace, and > 30% had lost a colleague to suicide. There are effective and proven methods to learn how to deal with stress that can easily be established in everyday clinical practice. Healthcare workers are subjected to numerous stressors in their work environment and observe the consequences of these stressors on their own and their colleagues’ wellbeing. Coping strategies for high-pressure reduces and resists the job- immanent pressure and stress in healthcare workers

    Failure Load and Fatigue Behavior of Monolithic and Bi-Layer Zirconia Fixed Dental Prostheses Bonded to One-Piece Zirconia Implants

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    No evidence-based prosthetic treatment concept for 3-unit fixed-dental-prostheses (FDPs) on ceramic implants is currently available. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the failure load and fatigue behavior of monolithic and bi-layer zirconia FDPs supported by one-piece ceramic implants. Eighty 3-unit FDPs supported by 160 zirconia-implants (ceramic.implant; vitaclinical) were divided into 4 groups (n = 20 each): Group Z-HT: 3Y-TZP monolithic-zirconia (Vita-YZ-HT); Group Z-ST: 4Y-TZP monolithic-zirconia (Vita-YZ-ST); Group FL: 3Y-TZP zirconia (Vita-YZ-HT) with facial-veneer (Vita-VM9); Group RL (Rapid-layer): PICN &ldquo;table-top&rdquo; (Vita-Enamic), 3Y-TZP-framework (Vita-YZ-HT). Half of the test samples (n = 10/group) were fatigued in a mouth-motion chewing-simulator (F = 98 N, 1.2 million-cycles) with simultaneous thermocycling (5&ndash;55 &deg;C). All specimens (fatigued and non-fatigued) were afterwards exposed to single-load-to-failure-testing (Z010, Zwick). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, Tukey&rsquo;s post-hoc tests and two-sample t-tests (p &lt; 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected where appropriate). All specimens withstood fatigue application. While the effect of fatigue was not significant in any group (p = 0.714), the choice of material had a significant effect (p &lt; 0.001). Material FL recorded the highest failure loads, followed by Z-ST, Z-HT and RL, both with and without fatigue application. Taken together, all tested FDP material combinations survived chewing forces that exceeded physiological levels. Bi-Layer FL and monolithic Z-ST showed the highest resilience and might serve as reliable prosthetic reconstruction concepts for 3-unit FDPs on ceramic implants
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