31,647 research outputs found

    Food insecurity is associated with chronic pain and high-impact chronic pain in the USA

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    Abstract Objective: This study evaluated whether food insecurity (US Adult Food Security Survey) was associated with chronic pain (‚Č• 3 months) and high-impact chronic pain (i.e. pain that limits work and life) among US adults. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Nationally representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the USA. Participants: 79 686 adults from the National Health Interview Survey (2019‚Äď2021). Results: Marginal, low and very low food security were associated with increased prevalence odds of chronic pain (OR: 1¬∑58 (95 % CI 1¬∑44, 1¬∑72), 2¬∑28 (95 % CI 2¬∑06, 2¬∑52) and 3¬∑37 (95 % CI 3¬∑01, 3¬∑78), respectively) and high-impact chronic pain (OR: 1¬∑28 (95 % CI 1¬∑14, 1¬∑42), 1¬∑55 (95 % CI 1¬∑37, 1¬∑75) and 1¬∑90 (95 % CI 1¬∑65, 2¬∑18), respectively) in a dose‚Äďresponse fashion (P-trend < 0¬∑0001 for both), adjusted for sociodemographic, socio-economic and clinically relevant factors. Participation in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and age modified the association between food insecurity and chronic pain. Conclusions: These findings illustrate the impact of socio-economic factors on chronic pain and suggest that food insecurity may be a social determinant of chronic pain. Further research is needed to better understand the complex relationship between food insecurity and chronic pain and to identify targets for interventions. Moreover, the consideration of food insecurity in the clinical assessment of pain and pain-related conditions among socio-economically disadvantaged adults may be warranted

    Additional file 1 of Diet patterns and cognitive performance in a UK Female Twin Registry (TwinsUK)

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    Additional file 1: Table S1. Baseline cognitive performance by increasing diet score in the female twins (n = 509 max). Table S2. Mean (SE) 10-year change in cognitive performance by low and high categories of diet score (n =275max). Table S3. Associations between baseline MIND diet score and relative abundance of genus level taxa at 10-year follow-up in 141 female twins. Table S4. Associations between baseline MED diet score and relative abundance of genus level taxa at 10-year follow-up in 141 female twins

    Diet patterns and cognitive performance in a UK Female Twin Registry (TwinsUK)

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    BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets may provide protection against cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease, but observational data have not been consistent. Previous studies include early life confounding from socioeconomic conditions and genetics that are known to influence both cognitive performance and diet behaviour. This study investigated associations between Mediterranean (MED) diet and MIND diets and cognitive performance accounting for shared genotype and early-life environmental exposures in female twins.METHODS: Diet scores were examined in 509 female twins enrolled in TwinsUK study. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess cognition at baseline and 10 years later (in n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ275). A co-twin case-control study for discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins examined effects of diet on cognitive performance independent of genetic factors. Differences in relative abundance of taxa at 10-year follow-up were explored in subsamples.RESULTS: Each 1-point increase in MIND or MED diet score was associated with 1.75 (95% CI:‚ÄČ-‚ÄČ2.96,‚ÄČ-‚ÄČ0.54, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.005 and q‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.11) and 1.67 (95% CI:‚ÄČ-‚ÄČ2.71,‚ÄČ-‚ÄČ0.65, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.002 and q‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.02) fewer respective errors in paired-associates learning. Within each MZ pair, the twin with the high diet score had better preservation in spatial span especially for MED diet (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.02). There were no differences between diet scores and 10-year change in the other cognitive tests. MIND diet adherence was associated with higher relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae UCG-010 (0.30% (95% CI 0.17, 0.62), q‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.05) which was also associated with less decline in global cognition over 10 years (0.22 (95% CI 0.06, 0.39), p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.01).CONCLUSIONS: MIND or MED diets could help to preserve some cognitive abilities in midlife, particularly episodic and visuospatial working memory. Effects may be mediated by high dietary fibre content and increased abundance of short-chain fatty acid producing gut bacteria. Longer follow-up with repeated measures of cognition will determine whether diet can influence changes in cognition occurring in older age.</p

    Multi-trait analysis characterizes the genetics of thyroid function and identifies causal associations with clinical implications

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    To date only a fraction of the genetic footprint of thyroid function has been clarified. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of thyroid function in up to 271,040 individuals of European ancestry, including reference range thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free and total triiodothyronine (T3), proxies for metabolism (T3/FT4 ratio) as well as dichotomized high and low TSH levels. We revealed 259 independent significant associations for TSH (61% novel), 85 for FT4 (67% novel), and 62 novel signals for the T3 related traits. The loci explained 14.1%, 6.0%, 9.5% and 1.1% of the total variation in TSH, FT4, total T3 and free T3 concentrations, respectively. Genetic correlations indicate that TSH associated loci reflect the thyroid function determined by free T3, whereas the FT4 associations represent the thyroid hormone metabolism. Polygenic risk score and Mendelian randomization analyses showed the effects of genetically determined variation in thyroid function on various clinical outcomes, including cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. In conclusion, our results improve the understanding of thyroid hormone physiology and highlight the pleiotropic effects of thyroid function on various diseases

    Cosmogenic-nuclide data from Antarctic nunataks can constrain past ice sheet instabilities

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    We apply geologic evidence from ice-free areas in Antarctica to evaluate model simulations of ice sheet response to warm climates. This is important because such simulations are used to predict ice sheet behaviour in future warm climates, but geologic evidence of smaller-than-present past ice sheets is buried under the present ice sheet and therefore generally unavailable for model benchmarking. We leverage an alternative accessible geologic dataset for this purpose: cosmogenic-nuclide concentrations in bedrock surfaces of interior nunataks. These data produce a frequency distribution of ice thickness over multimillion-year periods, which is also simulated by ice sheet modelling. End-member transient models, parameterized with strong and weak marine ice sheet instability processes and ocean temperature forcings, simulate large and small sea-level impacts during warm periods and also predict contrasting and distinct frequency distributions of ice thickness. We identify regions of Antarctica where predicted frequency distributions reveal differences in end-member ice sheet behaviour. We then demonstrate that a single comprehensive dataset from one bedrock site in West Antarctica is sufficiently detailed to show that the data are consistent only with a weak marine ice sheet instability end-member, but other less extensive datasets are insufficient and/or ambiguous. Finally, we highlight locations where collecting additional data could constrain the amplitude of past and therefore future response to warm climates.</p

    Antarctic Ice Sheet paleo-constraint database

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    We present a database of observational constraints on past Antarctic Ice Sheet changes during the last glacial cycle intended to consolidate the observations that represent our understanding of past Antarctic changes and for state-space estimation and paleo-model calibrations. The database is a major expansion of the initial work of Briggs and Tarasov (2013). It includes new data types and multi-tier data quality assessment. The updated constraint database, AntICE2 (https://theghub.org/resources/4884, Lecavalier et al., 2022), consists of observations of past grounded- and floating-ice-sheet extent, past ice thickness, past relative sea level, borehole temperature profiles, and present-day bedrock displacement rates. In addition to paleo-observations, the present-day ice sheet geometry and surface ice velocities are incorporated to constrain the present-day ice sheet configuration. The method by which the data are curated using explicitly defined criteria is detailed. Moreover, the observational uncertainties are specified. The methodology by which the constraint database can be applied to evaluate a given ice sheet reconstruction is discussed. The implementation of the AntICE2 database for Antarctic Ice Sheet model calibrations will improve Antarctic Ice Sheet predictions during past warm and cold periods and yield more robust paleo-model spin ups for forecasting future ice sheet changes.</p

    Quais s√£o e quais devem ser as dimens√Ķes da an√°lise do comportamento aplicada?

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    Este trabalho acompanha a publica√ß√£o da tradu√ß√£o de dois artigos cl√°ssicos de Baer, Wolf e Risley (1968, 1987). Nossos objetivos aqui s√£o apresentar informa√ß√Ķes sobre os contextos em que os artigos foram publicados e indicar debates atuais que se relacionam com pontos discutidos pelos autores. O artigo de 1968 foi publicado num contexto em que os estudos voltados a quest√Ķes socialmente relevantes vinham crescendo de frequ√™ncia e desenvolvendo pr√°ticas pr√≥prias de pesquisa, com diferen√ßas importantes em rela√ß√£o √†s pesquisas em laborat√≥rio. Os autores apresentaram as sete dimens√Ķes da an√°lise do comportamento aplicada (aplicada, comportamental, anal√≠tica, tecnol√≥gica, conceitualmente sistem√°tica, efetiva e generaliz√°vel) que descreviam a atua√ß√£o de analistas do comportamento aplicados e prescreviam como uma atua√ß√£o adequada deveria ser. Entre 1968 e 1987, houve uma expans√£o da an√°lise do comportamento aplicada, acompanhada de reflex√Ķes cr√≠ticas a respeito dos caminhos da √°rea. Em 1987, os autores reafirmaram as dimens√Ķes da an√°lise do comportamento aplicada, descreveram algumas pr√°ticas emergentes e prescreveram diretrizes para uma an√°lise do comportamento aplicada socialmente relevante. Por fim, h√° paralelos entre dilemas do passado e atuais. Por exemplo, a preocupa√ß√£o com o uso de t√©cnicas anal√≠tico-comportamentais por pessoas que desconhecem a teoria segue presente, especialmente com o aumento no n√ļmero de pessoas trabalhando com indiv√≠duos diagnosticados com Transtorno do Espectro Autista. Assim, talvez os direcionamentos de Baer, Wolf e Risley possam continuar servindo para a reflex√£o sobre os desenvolvimentos da an√°lise do comportamento aplicada.Palavras-chave: an√°lise do comportamento aplicada, hist√≥ria, metodologia, pesquisa aplicada, pesquisa experimental.
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