298 research outputs found

    Factors that predict outcome of intensive care treatment in very elderly patients: a review

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    INTRODUCTION: Advanced age is thought to be associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. This report reviews available data on factors that determine outcome, on the value of prognostic models, and on preferences regarding life-sustaining treatments in (very) elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: We searched the Medline database (January 1966 to January 2005) for English language articles. Selected articles were cross-checked for other relevant publications. RESULTS: Mortality rates are higher in elderly ICU patients than in younger patients. However, it is not age per se but associated factors, such as severity of illness and premorbid functional status, that appear to be responsible for the poorer prognosis. Patients' preferences regarding life-sustaining treatments are importantly influenced by the likelihood of a beneficial outcome. Commonly used prognostic models have not been calibrated for use in the very elderly. Furthermore, they do not address long-term survival and functional outcome. CONCLUSION: We advocate the development of new prognostic models, validated in elderly ICU patients, that predict not only survival but also functional and cognitive status after discharge. Such a model may support informed decision making with respect to patients' preferences

    Identification of high-risk subgroups in very elderly intensive care unit patients

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    INTRODUCTION: Current prognostic models for intensive care unit (ICU) patients have not been specifically developed or validated in the very elderly. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for ICU patients 80 years old or older to predict in-hospital mortality by means of data obtained within 24 hours after ICU admission. Aside from having good overall performance, the model was designed to reliably and specifically identify subgroups at very high risk of dying. METHODS: A total of 6,867 consecutive patients 80 years old or older from 21 Dutch ICUs were studied. Data necessary to calculate the Glasgow Coma Scale, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Mortality Probability Models II scores, and ICU and hospital survival were recorded. Data were randomly divided into a developmental (n = 4,587) and a validation (n = 2,289) set. By means of recursive partitioning analysis, a classification tree predicting in-hospital mortality was developed. This model was compared with the original SAPS II model and with the SAPS II model after recalibration for very elderly ICU patients in the Netherlands. RESULTS: Overall performance measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and by the Brier score was similar for the classification tree, the original SAPS II model, and the recalibrated SAPS II model. The tree identified most patients with very high risk of mortality (9.2% of patients versus 8.9% for the original SAPS II and 5.9% for the recalibrated SAPS II had a risk of more than 80%). With a cut-point at a risk of 80%, the positive predictive values were 0.88 for the tree, 0.83 for the original SAPS II, and 0.87 for the recalibrated SAPS II. CONCLUSION: Prognostic models with good overall performance may also reliably identify subgroups of very elderly ICU patients who have a very high risk of dying before hospital discharge. The classification tree has the advantage of identifying the separate factors contributing to bad outcome and of using few variables. Up to 9.5% of patients were found to have a risk to die of more than 85

    Association between dementia parental family history and mid-life modifiable risk factors for dementia:a cross-sectional study using propensity score matching within the Lifelines cohort

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    OBJECTIVE: Individuals with a parental family history (PFH) of dementia have an increased risk to develop dementia, regardless of genetic risks. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between a PFH of dementia and currently known modifiable risk factors for dementia among middle-aged individuals using propensity score matching (PSM). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of Lifelines (35–65 years), a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands was used. OUTCOME MEASURES: Fourteen modifiable risk factors for dementia and the overall Lifestyle for Brain Health (LIBRA) score, indicating someone’s potential for dementia risk reduction (DRR). RESULTS: The study population included 89 869 participants of which 10 940 (12.2%) had a PFH of dementia (mean (SD) age=52.95 (7.2)) and 36 389 (40.5%) without a PFH of dementia (mean (SD) age=43.19 (5.5)). Of 42 540 participants (47.3%), PFH of dementia was imputed. After PSM, potential confounding variables were balanced between individuals with and without PFH of dementia. Individuals with a PFH of dementia had more often hypertension (OR=1.19; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.24), high cholesterol (OR=1.24; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.30), diabetes (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.42), cardiovascular diseases (OR=1.49; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.88), depression (OR=1.23; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.41), obesity (OR=1.14; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.20) and overweight (OR=1.10; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.17), and were more often current smokers (OR=1.20; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.27) and ex-smokers (OR=1.21; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.27). However, they were less often low/moderate alcohol consumers (OR=0.87; 95% CI 0.83 to 0.91), excessive alcohol consumers (OR=0.93; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98), socially inactive (OR=0.84; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.90) and physically inactive (OR=0.93; 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97). Having a PFH of dementia resulted in a higher LIBRA score (RC=0.15; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.19). CONCLUSION: We found that having a PFH of dementia was associated with several modifiable risk factors. This suggests that middle-aged individuals with a PFH of dementia are a group at risk and could benefit from DRR. Further research should explore their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards DRR, and whether they are willing to assess their risk and change their lifestyle to reduce dementia risk

    Determinants of trajectories of fatigability and mobility among older medical patients during and after hospitalization; an explorative study

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    BACKGROUND: Fatigability is an important marker of functional decline in community dwelling older people, yet its relationship with functional decline after hospitalization is unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify trajectories of fatigability and mobility over time and to examine the association between demographic and clinical characteristics and these trajectories in medical patients aged 70 years and older admitted to a Dutch tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study with baseline (in-hospital), discharge, three-, and six-months post discharge follow-up measurements, fatigability was assessed by the physical subscale of the Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale (PFS). Mobility was assessed by the De Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI). Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify joint trajectories of fatigability and mobility. Covariates included demographic (age, sex, living situation, education) and clinical characteristics (functional status, frailty status, depression, comorbidity, length of hospital stay). RESULTS: Among 44 patients, three distinct fatigability trajectories and two mobility trajectories were identified over the course from hospital admission up to six months after discharge. Subsequently, three joint trajectories were identified, including low fatigability and high mobility (11%), improving fatigability and high mobility (52%), and high fatigability and low mobility (36%). Controlling for baseline functional status, patients with a lower comorbidity score (OR: 0.27, 95%CI 0.10; 0.74) and higher frailty status (OR: 1.36, 95%CI: 1.07; 1.74) were more likely to be a member of the high fatigability and low mobility trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: From hospital admission up to six months after discharge, three distinct trajectories of fatigability and mobility were identified among older medical patients. Our results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size, but may inspire other researchers to determine the value of fatigability assessment in identifying older medical patients at risk for developing mobility problems. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12877-021-02714-9

    Goals of older hospitalised patients:a qualitative descriptive study

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    Objectives Since the population continues ageing and the number of patients with multiple chronic diseases is rising in Western countries, a shift is recommended from disease oriented towards goal-oriented healthcare. As little is known about individual goals and preferences of older hospitalised patients, the aim of this study is to elucidate the goals of a diverse group of older hospitalised patients. Design Qualitative descriptive method with open interviews analysed with inductive content analysis. Setting A university teaching hospital and a regional teaching hospital. Participants Twenty-eight hospitalised patients aged 70 years and older. Results Some older hospitalised patients initially had difficulties describing concrete goals, but after probing all were able to state more concrete goals. A great diversity of goals were categorised into wanting to know what the matter is, controlling disease, staying alive, improving condition, alleviating complaints, improving daily functioning, improving/maintaining social functioning, resuming work/hobbies and regaining/maintaining autonomy. Conclusions Older hospitalised patients have a diversity of goals in different domains. Discussing goals with older patients is not a common practice yet. Timely discussions about goals should be encouraged because individual goals are not self-evident and this discussion can guide decision making, especially in patients with multimorbidity and frailty. Aids can be helpful to facilitate the discussion about goals and evaluate the outcomes of hospitalisation

    Translation and validation of the Dutch Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale for older adults

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    Background The original Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale (PFS) was developed to assess perceived fatigability in older adults. The objective of this study was to translate the PFS into Dutch and investigate its validity and reliability among hospitalized older adults aged >= 70 years. Methods The PFS was translated into Dutch and pretested for comprehensibility by the Three-Step Test Interview method. The factor structure underlying the final version was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analyses (EFA). Internal consistency of the identified subscales was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was evaluated by hypothesis testing. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland Altman plots. Results The validation sample included 233 patients. CFA of the original factor structure resulted in poor model fit in our Dutch sample. EFA of PFS physical and mental subscales resulted in a two-factor solution underlying the data with good internal consistency of the identified subscales (Cronbach's alpha: 0.80-0.92). Five out of six hypotheses were confirmed, indicating good construct validity. Retest assessments were performed among 50 patients and showed good reliability for both the physical (ICC: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.68; 0.88) and mental subscale (ICC: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.68; 0.89). Conclusion The Dutch PFS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess fatigability in older hospitalized patients

    Trajectories of Self-Rated Health in an Older General Population and Their Determinants: The Lifelines Cohort Study

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    OBJECTIVES: Poor self-rated health (SRH) is a strong predictor of premature mortality in older adults. Trajectories of poor SRH are associated with multimorbidity and unhealthy behaviours. Whether trajectories of SRH are associated with deviating physiological markers is unclear. This study identified trajectories of SRH and investigated the associations of trajectory membership with chronic diseases, health risk behaviours and physiological markers in community-dwelling older adults. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective general population cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Trajectories of SRH over 5 years were identified using data of 11 600 participants aged 65 years and older of the Lifelines Cohort Study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Trajectories of SRH were the main outcome. Covariates included demographics (age, gender, education), chronic diseases, health-risk behaviour (physical activity, smoking, drinking) and physiological markers (body mass index, cardiovascular function, lung function, glucose metabolism, haematological condition, endocrine function, renal function, liver function and cognitive function). RESULTS: Four stable trajectories were identified, including excellent (n=607, 6%), good (n=2111, 19%), moderate (n=7677, 65%) and poor SRH (n=1205, 10%). Being women (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.9), low education (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.0), one (OR: 10.4; 95% CI: 7.4 to 14.7) or multiple chronic diseases (OR: 37.8; 95% CI: 22.4 to 71.8), smoking (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0 to 3.2), physical inactivity (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.2), alcohol abstinence (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.2) and deviating physiological markers (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.0) increase the odds for a higher probability of poor SRH trajectory membership compared with excellent SRH trajectory membership. CONCLUSION: SRH of community-dwelling older adults is stable over time with the majority (65%) having moderate SRH. Older adults with higher probabilities of poor SRH often have unfavourable health status

    Reproducibility and responsiveness of the Frailty Index and Frailty Phenotype in older hospitalized patients

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    BACKGROUND: There is growing interest for interventions aiming at preventing frailty progression or even to reverse frailty in older people, yet it is still unclear which frailty instrument is most appropriate for measuring change scores over time to determine the effectiveness of interventions. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine reproducibility and responsiveness properties of the Frailty Index (FI) and Frailty Phenotype (FP) in acutely hospitalized medical patients aged 70 years and older. METHODS: Reproducibility was assessed by Intra-Class Correlation Coefficients (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC); Responsiveness was assessed by the standardized response mean (SRM), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: At baseline, 243 patients were included with a median age of 76 years (range 70–98). The analytic samples included 192 and 187 patients in the three and twelve months follow-up analyses, respectively. ICC of the FI were 0.85 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.76; 0.91) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77; 0.90), and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.49; 0.77) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.65; 0.84) for the FP. SEM ranged from 5 to 13 %; SDC from 13 to 37 %. SRMs were good in patients with unchanged frailty status (< 0.50), and doubtful to good for deteriorated and improved patients (0.43–1.00). AUC’s over three months were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.69; 0.86) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.62; 0.79) for the FI, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.58; 0.77) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.55; 0.74) for the FP. Over twelve months, AUCs were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69; 0.87) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73; 0.90) for the FI, and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69; 0.87) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67; 0.84) for the FP. CONCLUSIONS: The Frailty Index showed better reproducibility and responsiveness properties compared to the Frailty Phenotype among acutely hospitalized older patients. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12877-021-02444-y
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