327 research outputs found

    Allocation rules for museum pass programs

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    We consider natural axioms for allocating the income of museum pass programs. Two allocation rules are characterized and are shown to coincide with the Shapley value and the equal division solution of the associated TU-game introduced by Ginsburgh and Zang (2003).Museum pass program; fair treatment; Shapley value; equal division solution

    Compensations in the Shapley value and the compensation solutions for graph games

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    We consider an alternative expression of the Shapley value that reveals a system of compensations: each player receives an equal share of the worth of each coalition he belongs to, and has to compensate an equal share of the worth of any coalition he does not belong to. We give an interpretation in terms of formation of the grand coalition according to an ordering of the players and define the corresponding compensation vector. Then, we generalize this idea to cooperative games with a communication graph. Firstly, we consider cooperative games with a forest (cycle-free graph). We extend the compensation vector by considering all rooted spanning trees of the forest (see Demange 2004) instead of orderings of the players. The associated allocation rule, called the compensation solution, is characterized by component efficiency and relative fairness. The latter axiom takes into account the relative position of a player with respect to his component. Secondly, we consider cooperative games with arbitrary graphs and construct rooted spanning trees by using the classical algorithms DFS and BFS. If the graph is complete, we show that the compensation solutions associated with DFS and BFS coincide with the Shapley value and the equal surplus division respectively.

    Average tree solutions and the distribution of Harsanyi dividends

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    We consider communication situations games being the combination of a TU-game and a communication graph. We study the average tree (AT) solutions introduced by Herings \sl et al. [9] and [10]. The AT solutions are defined with respect to a set, say T, of rooted spanning trees of the communication graph. We characterize these solutions by efficiency, linearity and an axiom of T-hierarchy. Then we prove the following results. Firstly, the AT solution with respect to T is a Harsanyi solution if and only if T is a subset of the set of trees introduced in [10]. Secondly, the latter set is constructed by the classical DFS algorithm and the associated AT solution coincides with the Shapley value when the communication graph is complete. Thirdly, the AT solution with respect to trees constructed by the other classical algorithm BFS yields the equal surplus division when the communication graph is complete.

    Processus de contagion et interactions stratégiques

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    Numéro spécial : "Processus de contagion et interactions stratégiques" accessible en ligne sur revues.org : http://rei.revues.org/index307.htmlNational audienc

    Farsighted Coalitional Stability in TU-games

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    We study farsighted coalitional stability in the context of TUgames. Chwe (1994, p.318) notes that, in this context, it is difficult to prove nonemptiness of the largest consistent set. We show that every TU-game has a nonempty largest consistent set. Moreover, the proof of this result points out that each TU-game has a farsighted stable set. We go further by providing a characterization of the collection of farsighted stable sets in TU-games. We also show that the farsighted core of a TU-game is empty or is equal to the set of imputations of the game. Next, the relationships between the core and the largest consistent set are studied in superadditive TU-games and in clan games. In the last section, we explore the stability of the Shapley value. It is proved that the Shapley value of a superadditive TU-game is always a stable imputation: it is a core imputation or it constitutes a farsighted stable set. A necessary and sufficient condition for a superadditive TU-game to have the Shapley value in the largest consistent set is given.

    On the number of blocks required to access the core

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    For any transferable utility game in coalitional form with nonempty core, we show that that the number of blocks required to switch from an imputation out of the core to an imputation in the core is less than or equal to n(n-1)/2, where n is the cardinality of the player set. This number considerably improves the upper bounds found so far by Koczy (2006) and Yang (2010). Our result relies on an altered version of the procedure proposed by Sengupta and Sengupta (1996). The use of the Davis-Maschler reduced-games is also pointed out.Core; excess function; dominance path; Davis-Maschler reduced-game

    Interaction on Hypergraphs

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    Interaction on hypergraphs generalizes interaction on graphs, also known as pairwise local interaction. For games played on a hypergraph which are supermodular potential games, logit-perturbed best-response dynamics are studied. We find that the associated stochastically stable states form a sublattice of the lattice of Nash equilibria and derive comparative statics results for the smallest and the largest stochastically stable state. In the special case of networking games, we obtain comparative statics results with respect to investment costs, for Nash equilibria of supermodular games as well as for Nash equilibria of submodular games.

    Weighted Component Fairness for Forest Games

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    We present the axiom of weighted component fairness for the class of forest games, a generalization of component fairness introduced by Herings, Talman and van der Laan (2008) in order to characterize the average tree solution. Given a system of weights, component eciency and weighted component fairness yield a unique allocation rule. We provide an analysis of the set of allocation rules generated by component eciency and weighted component fairness. This allows us to provide a new characterization of the random tree solutions.(Weighted) component fairness ; Core ; Graph games ; Alexia value ; Harsanyi solutions ; Random tree solutions.

    Compensations in the Shapley value and the compensation solutions for graph games

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    We consider an alternative expression of the Shapley value that reveals a system of compensations: each player receives an equal share of the worth of each coalition he belongs to, and has to compensate an equal share of the worth of any coalition he does not belong to. We give an interpretation in terms of formation of the grand coalition according to an ordering of the players and define the corresponding compensation vector. Then, we generalize this idea to cooperative games with a communication graph. Firstly, we consider cooperative games with a forest (cycle-free graph). We extend the compensation vector by considering all rooted spanning trees of the forest (see Demange 2004) instead of orderings of the players. The associated allocation rule, called the compensation solution, is characterized by component efficiency and relative fairness. The latter axiom takes into account the relative position of a player with respect to his component. Secondly, we consider cooperative games with arbitrary graphs and construct rooted spanning trees by using the classical algorithms DFS and BFS. If the graph is complete, we show that the compensation solutions associated with DFS and BFS coincide with the Shapley value and the equal surplus division respectively.Shapley value ; compensations ; relative fairness ; compensation solution ; DFS ; BFS ; equal surplus division

    On the number of blocks required to access the coalition structure core

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    This article shows that, for any transferable utility game in coalitional form with nonempty coalition structure core, the number of steps required to switch from a payoff configuration out of the coalition structure core to a payoff configuration in the coalition structure core is less than or equal to (n*n+4n)/4, where n is the cardinality of the player set. This number considerably improves the upper bound found so far by Koczy and Lauwers (2004).coalition structure core; excess function; payoff configuration; outsider independent domination.
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