143 research outputs found

    Head of State of Exception

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    During the escalation of the “German Autumn” in 1977 the Federal German government resorted to a specific form of crisis management that had been described as an undeclared state of exception. It was Federal chancellor Helmut Schmidt in the first place who oversaw the anti-terrorist measures in the situation room where the executive branch ruled for six weeks beyond any parliamentary control. This article examines the role that Helmut Schmidt had played for the creation of a “subjective state of exception” (Julius Hatschek) and how this could be seen as stemming from Schmidt’s earlier experiences and handling of crisis situations dating back to the 1960s. In this regard it has to be asked with Giorgio Agamben, if in the West German case, the state of exception had become the rule

    Free exopolysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides possesses anti-inflammatory properties

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    In this study we explored the immunomodulatory properties of highly purified free galactan, the soluble exopolysaccharide secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Galactan was shown to bind to TLR2 but not TLR4 using HEK293 reporter cells and to induce the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in bovine macrophages, whereas low IL-12p40 and no TNF-α, both pro-inflammatory cytokines, were induced in these cells. In addition, pre-treatment of macrophages with galactan substantially reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- and IL-12p40 while increasing LPS-induced secretion of immunosuppressive IL-10. Also, galactan did not activate naïve lymphocytes and induced only low production of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in Mmm-experienced lymphocytes. Finally, galactan triggered weak recall proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes from contagious bovine pleuropneumonia-infected animals despite having a positive effect on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on macrophages. All together, these results suggest that galactan possesses anti-inflammatory properties and potentially provides Mmm with a mechanism to evade host innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses. (Résumé d'auteur

    Gut microbiota and diabetes: from pathogenesis to therapeutic perspective

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    More than several hundreds of millions of people will be diabetic and obese over the next decades in front of which the actual therapeutic approaches aim at treating the consequences rather than causes of the impaired metabolism. This strategy is not efficient and new paradigms should be found. The wide analysis of the genome cannot predict or explain more than 10–20% of the disease, whereas changes in feeding and social behavior have certainly a major impact. However, the molecular mechanisms linking environmental factors and genetic susceptibility were so far not envisioned until the recent discovery of a hidden source of genomic diversity, i.e., the metagenome. More than 3 million genes from several hundreds of species constitute our intestinal microbiome. First key experiments have demonstrated that this biome can by itself transfer metabolic disease. The mechanisms are unknown but could be involved in the modulation of energy harvesting capacity by the host as well as the low-grade inflammation and the corresponding immune response on adipose tissue plasticity, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and even the secondary cardiovascular events. Secreted bacterial factors reach the circulating blood, and even full bacteria from intestinal microbiota can reach tissues where inflammation is triggered. The last 5 years have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota, at its molecular level, is a causal factor early in the development of the diseases. Nonetheless, much more need to be uncovered in order to identify first, new predictive biomarkers so that preventive strategies based on pre- and probiotics, and second, new therapeutic strategies against the cause rather than the consequence of hyperglycemia and body weight gain

    Interactions of Adiponectin and Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis on Human Oral Epithelial Cells

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    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, and characterized by the destruction of the periodontium. Obese individuals have an increased risk for periodontitis and show decreased serum levels of adiponectin. This in-vitro study was established to examine whether adiponectin modulates critical effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from P. gingivalis on oral epithelial cells (OECs). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The presence of adiponectin and its receptors in human gingival tissue samples and OECs was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Furthermore, OECs were treated with LPS and/or adiponectin for up to 72 h, and the gene expression and protein synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and growth factors were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA. Additionally, cell proliferation, differentiation and in-vitro wound healing were studied. The nuclear translocation of NFκB was investigated by immunofluorescence. Gingival tissue sections showed a strong synthesis of adiponectin and its receptors in the epithelial layer. In cell cultures, LPS induced a significant up-regulation of interleukin (IL) 1β, IL6, IL8, MMP1 and MMP3. Adiponectin abrogated significantly the stimulatory effects of LPS on these molecules. Similarly, adiponectin inhibited significantly the LPS-induced decrease in cell viability and increase in cell proliferation and differentiation. Adiponectin led to a time-dependent induction of the anti-inflammatory mediators IL10 and heme oxygenase 1, and blocked the LPS-stimulated NFκB nuclear translocation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adiponectin may counteract critical actions of P. gingivalis on oral epithelial cells. Low levels of adiponectin, as observed in obese individuals, may increase the risk for periodontal inflammation and destruction

    Maximum Attainable Toroidal Magnetic Fields for Tokamaks

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