79 research outputs found

    Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.

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    The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients

    Papillomavirus Infection of the Anogenital Region: Correlation Between Histology, Clinical Picture, and Virus Type. Proposal of a New Nomenclature

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    The clinical and histologic picture of 84 anogenital condylomatous and condyloma-like lesions of both sexes were analyzed in an effort to establish a correlation to the different papillomavirus (PV) types. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific DNA sequences was confirmed through molecular hybridization and the presence of PV structure antigens was verified in thin sections by means of a group-specific anti-PV-antiserum using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique. Three distinct clinical forms harboring distinct HPV types were distinguished: (1) Condylomata acuminata in which HPV-6 DNA was present in 37 of 59 samples and HPV-11 DNA in only 13 of 59 samples. HPV-16 DNA was not detected at all and 9 condylomatous lesions remained unclassified. (2) Flat condyloma-like lesions, where HPV-6 and HPV- 11 were associated with lesions of low epidermal atypia in 8 and in 2 of 18 cases, respectively, and where HPV-16 was associated exclusively with 6 of 18 such lesions with severe atypia, called bowenoid papulosis. (3) Pigmented papules where HPV16 was detected twice in lesions of bowenoid papulosis and HPV-11 in 2 of the benign pigmented lesions. The fourth clinical manifestation of genital papillomavirus infections—the so-called condylomata plana—was not available for virologic analysis. Histologically 5 different koilocytotic features were determined which could not be correlated either with one of the clinical pictures or with a specific PV type. HPV-16, however, was found frequently in non-koilocytotic lesions exhibiting the features of severe epithelial atypia known in bowenoid papulosis. The existence of PV structure antigens in these lesions could not be verified using the indirect immunoperoxidase—PAPtechnique—in contrast to the koilocytotic lesions where clear evidence of the presence of HPV was proved in 36 of 56 (64.3%) of the cases

    Use of benzodiazepine and Z‐drugs and mortality in older adults after myocardial infarction

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    BACKGROUND: The adverse cardiovascular effects of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (jointly referred as BZDRs) have been of concern. Yet, little is known about the use of BZDRs in relation to mortality risk among older adults with myocardial infarction history (post-MI). METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the Alpha Omega Cohort study, comprising post-MI patients aged 40-60 years. Self-reported information on the use of BZDRs, including types and dose, was collected at baseline. Four categories of mortality were examined, namely all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CVD) mortality, cancer mortality, and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality. Associations between BZDRs use, by types and doses, and mortality were estimated with Cox regression models, adjusted for demographic and classic cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 433 (8.9%) out of 4837 (21.8% females) patients reported BZDRs use at baseline. During a median follow-up of 12.4 years, 2287 deaths were documented, of which 825 (36.1%) were due to CVD. BZDRs use was related to a statistically significantly higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality; adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] were (1.31 [1.41, 1.52]) and (1.43 [1.14, 1.81]), respectively. These relationships were dose-dependent-patients using BZDRs on an as-needed basis had similar risks compared to the non-uses, whereas patients with a daily use schedule and increasing doses had higher risks (p-value for trend: <0.001). CONCLUSION: BZDRs use was independently associated with a higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in older post-MI patients, and there was evidence for a dose-dependent relationship. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00127452 (www.gov)

    Changes in perceived stress and lifestyle behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in The Netherlands:An online longitudinal survey study

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    The COVID-19 pandemic has substantial implications for physical and mental wellbeing. This study investigated changes, over time, in lifestyle behaviors and perceived stress during the initial phase of the pandemic and associations with COVID-19 symptoms, in the Dutch general population. An online longitudinal survey study was performed with pre-lockdown measurements in February, and subsequently in April and June 2020 (n = 259, mean age 59 ± 14 years, 59% women). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess weight, diet quality, physical activity, alcohol intake, and smoking. Perceived stress was measured using the validated perceived stress scale (PSS-10). The presence of COVID-19 symptoms (yes/no) was defined as fever, or >3 of the following symptoms: weakness/tiredness, muscle ache, dry cough, loss of smell/taste, and breathing difficulties. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models, adjusted for age, sex, educational level, marital status and (change in) employment status. Minimal increases over time were observed in alcohol intake (0.6 ± 0.7 to 0.7 ± 1.1 glasses/day, p = 0.001) and smoking (9.5 ± 8.7 to 10.9 ± 9.4 cigarettes/day among 10% smokers, p = 0.03), but other lifestyle behaviors remained stable. In April 2020, 15% reported COVID-19-related symptoms, and in June 2020, this was 10%. The presence of COVID-19 symptoms was associated with increased perceived stress (p interaction = 0.003) and increased alcohol consumption (p interaction = 0.03) over time. In conclusion, in this prospective study, COVID-19 symptoms were associated with increases in perceived stress and alcohol consumption. Future research on biopsychosocial determinants and underlying mechanisms of lifestyle changes, as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, is needed

    Real-life achievement of lipid-lowering treatment targets in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente:Systemic assessment of pharmacological and nutritional factors

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    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) in type 2 diabetes mellitus is of paramount importance in preventing cardiovascular disease. However, treatment targets for LDLc are often not reached. We studied the prevalence of LDLc target achievement in a real-life population of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in secondary care, and investigated whether in those not on target, there is room for intensifying pharmacological and lifestyle management according to current treatment guidelines. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente-1 (DIALECT-1; n = 450, age 63 ± 9 years, 58% men, diabetes duration 11 (7-18) years). At baseline, we determined plasma LDLc concentration, pharmacological treatment (i.e., statin use), and lifestyle (physical activity and dietary intake). Patients were divided according to LDLc < 1.8, LDLc 1.8-2.5, and LDLc > 2.5 mmol/l. Dietary intake was collected from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (177 items) and we determined guideline adherence for different food groups. Physical activity was assessed with the Short Questionnaire to ASsess Health enhancing behavior. RESULTS: LDLc data were available in 428 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. LDLc ≤ 2.5 mmol/l was achieved in 317 patients (76%). In total, 76% of patients used statins, in those with LDLc > 2.5 mmol/l, this was 44%. Adherence to lifestyle guidelines was not different between the LDLc groups and was as follows: body mass index 6%, physical activity 59%, vegetables 7%, fruit 28%, legumes 59%, nuts 14%, dairy 19%, fish 36%, tea 8%, fats 66%, red meat 12%, processed meat 2%, alcohol 71%, sweetened beverages 34%, and sodium 12%. CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in secondary health care, the target LDLc is achieved by three quarters of patients. Increasing statin treatment could be a first step to improve LDLc. In addition, there are ample opportunities for lifestyle management through increasing adherence to lifestyle guidelines

    Dairy product consumption in relation to incident prediabetes and longitudinal insulin resistance in the Rotterdam study

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    Evidence suggests neutral or moderately beneficial effects of dairy intake on type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. Nevertheless, evidence on associations with early phases of type 2 diabetes remains inconsistent. We aimed to examine associations between dairy-type intake with prediabetes risk and longitudinal insulin resistance. The analytic sample consisted of 6770 participants (aged 62 ± 4 years, 59% female) free of (pre-)diabetes at baseline from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. Dairy intake was measured at baseline using food frequency questionnaires. Data on prediabetes (fasting blood glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/L or non-fasting 7.7–11.1 mmol/L) and the longitudinal homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were available from 1993–2015. Associations with these outcomes were analyzed with dairy intake in quartiles (Q4 vs. Q1) and continuous using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and linear mixed models. During a mean follow-up of 11.3 ± 4.8 years, 1139 incident prediabetes cases were documented (18.8%). In models adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, a higher intake of high-fat yogurt was associated with lower prediabetes risk (HRQ4vsQ1 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91 and HRserving/day 0.67, 0.51–0.89). In addition, a higher intake of high-fat milk was associated with lower prediabetes risk (HRQ4vsQ1 0.81, 0.67–0.97, HRserving/day 0.88, 0.79–0.99). Associations were found for low-fat dairy, low-fat milk and total cheese with a higher prediabetes risk (HRserving/day ranging from 1.05–1.07, not significant in quartiles). Associations with longitudinal HOMA-IR were similar to prediabetes for high-fat yogurt, low-fat dairy and low-fat milk. Fermented dairy, low-fat yogurt, high-fat cheese, cream and ice cream were not associated with the outcomes. In conclusion, a higher intake of high-fat yogurt was associated with a lower prediabetes risk and lower longitudinal insulin resistance. Additionally, high-fat milk was associated with a lower prediabetes risk. Some low-fat dairy types were inconsistently associated with these outcomes. Studies are needed to confirm associations and to examine the influence of confounding by population characteristic

    Intake of n-3 fatty acids and long-term outcome in renal transplant recipients:a post hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study

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    Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may improve long-term outcomes of renal transplant recipients (RTR). Recent evidence suggests that EPA and DHA have different outcomes compared with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). We examined the prospective associations of EPA-DHA and ALA intakes with graft failure and all-cause mortality in 637 RTR. During 3.1 years (interquartile range 2.7, 3.8) of follow-up, forty-one developed graft failure and sixty-seven died. In age-and sex-adjusted analyses, EPA-DHA and ALA intakes were not associated with graft failure. EPA-DHA intake was not significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.54, 1.15 per 0.1 energy% difference). ALA intake was significantly associated with mortality (HR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04, 1.31 per 0.1 energy% difference). This association remained following adjustments for BMI, proteinuria and intakes of fat, carbohydrate and protein. RTR in the highest tertile of ALA intake exhibited about 2-fold higher mortality risk (HR 2.21; 95% CI 1.23, 3.97) compared with the lowest tertile. In conclusion, ALA intake may be associated with increased mortality in RTR. Future RCT are needed to confirm these results

    Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease:The Alpha Omega Trial

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    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on plasma FGF23 levels in post-myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. In the randomized double-blind Alpha Omega Trial, 4837 patients with a history of myocardial infarction aged 60–80 years (81% men) were randomized to one of four trial margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400 mg/day EPA and DHA, 2 g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 41 months. In a subcohort of 336 patients with an eGFR &lt; 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (creatinine-cystatin C-based CKD-EPI formula), plasma C-terminal FGF23 was measured by ELISA at baseline and end of follow-up. We used analysis of covariance to examine treatment effects on FGF23 levels adjusted for baseline FGF23. Patients consumed 19.8 g margarine/day on average, providing an additional amount of 236 mg/day EPA with 158 mg/day DHA, 1.99 g/day ALA or both, in the active intervention groups. Over 79% of patients were treated with antihypertensive and antithrombotic medication and statins. At baseline, plasma FGF23 was 150 (128 to 172) RU/mL (mean (95% CI)). After 41 months, overall FGF23 levels had increased significantly (p &lt; 0.0001) to 212 (183 to 241) RU/mL. Relative to the placebo, the treatment effect of EPA-DHA was indifferent, with a mean change in FGF23 (95% CI) of −17 (−97, 62) RU/mL (p = 0.7). Results were similar for ALA (36 (−42, 115) RU/mL) and combined EPA-DHA and ALA (34 (−44, 113) RU/mL). Multivariable adjustment, pooled analyses, and subgroup analyses yielded similar non-significant results. Long-term supplementation with modest quantities of EPA-DHA or ALA does not reduce plasma FGF23 levels when added to cardiovascular medication in post-myocardial patients with chronic kidney disease

    WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated and trans fatty acids: time for a new approach?

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    The 2018 WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids recommend reducing total intake of saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The recommendations fail to take into account considerable evidence that the health effects of saturated fat varies depending on the specific fatty acid and on the specific food source. Maintaining general advice to reduce total saturated fatty acids will work against the intentions of the guidelines and weaken their effect on chronic disease incidence and mortality. A food based translation of the recommendations for saturated fat intake would avoid unnecessary reduction or exclusion of foods that are key sources of important nutrients

    Sugar and low/no-calorie-sweetened beverage consumption and associations with body weight and waist circumference changes in five European cohort studies: the SWEET project.

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    PurposeResults of prospective studies investigating associations between low/no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) and body weight-related outcomes are inconclusive. We conducted dose-response and theoretical replacement individual patient data meta-analyses using harmonised prospective data to evaluate associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, low/no-calorie sweetened beverage (LNCB) consumption, and changes in body weight and waist circumference.MethodsIndividual participant data were obtained from five European studies, i.e., Lifelines Cohort Study, NQplus study, Alpha Omega Cohort, Predimed-Plus study, and Feel4diabetes study, including 82,719 adults aged 18-89 with follow-up between 1 and 9 years. Consumption of SSB and LNCB was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses adjusting for major confounders and including substitution models were conducted to quantify associations in individual cohorts; random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool individual estimates.ResultsOverall, pooled results showed weak adverse associations between SSB consumption and changes in body weight (+ 0.02 kg/y, 95%CI 0.00; 0.04) and waist circumference (+ 0.03 cm/y, 95%CI 0.01; 0.05). LNCB consumption was associated with higher weight gain (+ 0.06 kg/y, 95%CI 0.04; 0.08) but not with waist circumference. No clear associations were observed for any theoretical replacements, i.e., LNCB or water for SSB or water for LNCB.ConclusionIn conclusion, this analysis of five European studies found a weak positive association between SSB consumption and weight and waist change, whilst LNCB consumption was associated with weight change only. Theoretical substitutions did not show any clear association. Thus, the benefit of LNCBs as an alternative to SSBs remains unclear
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