259 research outputs found

    Contact electrode method for bulk periodically poled LiNbO<sub>3</sub>

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    Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the use of quasi-phase-matched (QPM) nonlinear crystals, which permit noncritical-phase-matching for any wavelengths in the transparency range of the crystal, and have the advantage of using the largest component of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor, one that is not available in birefringent phase matching without walk-off problems. QPM can be achieved by an appropriate periodic modulation of the nonlinear coefficient, which corresponds to periodic domain reversal in ferroelectric materials. In particular, the application of QPM to bulk nonlinear optics has been revolutionised by the emergence of electric field poling techniques for patterning the domain structure of ferroelectric and polar crystals. In all the reported fabrication processes the periodic electrode (consisting of resist and/or metal layers) has been fabricated on the surface of the crystal substrates by conventional photolithography.We report here a new fabrication process for PPLN - the contact electrode method (CEM) - in which the periodic electrode is pressed onto one of the substrate surfaces with a uniform electrode on the other. CEM does not need any photolithographic processes on the substrate surface which may lead to greatly reduced fabrication cost. Furthermore, CEM would be applicable for fabrications of periodically poled glass fiber

    Novel technique for measuring dispersion and detuning of a UV written silica-on-silicon waveguide

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    We shall present a new method of measuring the dispersive properties of UV written waveguides in the silica-on-silicon platform used to fabricate planar Bragg gratings. The technique involves direct measurement of the modal refractive index of a waveguide produced in the material. The data obtained also provides additional information about the spectral range of Bragg grating inscription. This direct writing technique reported previously differs from fibre Bragg grating fabrication by the small spot size of the writing beam and permits detuning of the Bragg wavelength from 1250nm to 1625nm. The fabrication technique provides the exact period of the grating and thus interrogation of the gratings produces information on the effective index of the mode. A series of integrated gratings were fabricated in a direct UV written waveguide via the direct grating writing technique in order to measure the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of the material. The Sellmeier curve obtained is shown

    Optical control of electric-field poling in LiTaO<sub>3</sub>

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    We present a room temperature technique for optically inducing periodic domain-inverted structures in bulk (0.2mm thick) LiTaO3. By simultaneous application of an electric field and patterned illumination using UV wavelengths (351nm and 364nm) we demonstrate modulation of the resulting domain profile. We discuss the origins of the observed optical effect and describe our results from repeated domain switching, by cycling the electric field

    Monitoring the deflection of a membrane using direct UV written planar Bragg gratings

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    A thin (~100 µm thick) silica-on-silicon square membrane (10 mm x 10 mm) has been fabricated and its deflection monitored through a 100 Bragg grating array defined within the membrane

    An integrated optofluidic Bragg grating device to measure the dynamic composition of a fluid

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    Strong transitional mixing effects were observed by a planar Bragg grating sensor within a microfluidic system. This property was used to develop an integrated optofluidic sensor for detection of the composition of mixed solvent systems

    Affective issues in learning technologies: emotional responses to technology and technology's role in supporting socio-emotional skills

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    This paper focuses on some of the author's research studies over the past thirty years and places these in a wider context to reflect on research into affective issues in learning technologies over this period, and to consider whether and how the issues uncovered by research have changed as technologies have developed over time. Three issues are given particular attention: firstly the reasons for learners' use or lack of use of technologies for their learning; secondly adult learners' attitudes towards using technology for learning and thirdly how technology might support socio-emotional development and expression in children. The discussion of these issues is framed by two of the author's research projects. For the first two issues this is an early study of students' perceptions and attitudes towards using computers for tutorial learning in 1980. The factors that influenced the students' use of the computer tutorials are discussed (including access, assessment and anxiety about using computers) and also the extent to which some of these factors persist for many learners using (or not using) technologies today. The discussion of the third issue draws on a series of studies conducted in the 1990s to investigate whether educational technology could support children and young people's emotional expression and communication and development of socio-emotional skills. Finally the paper considers how these kinds of issues have been taken forward and how they are represented in contemporary research and suggests that trust is an important factor in using learning technologies

    Influence of light on the coercive field of repoled strontium barium niobate (SBN); the role of secondary repoling

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    We have found that the application of light to strontium barium niobate (SBN) during electrical repoling stabilises the newly formed domains. This stabilisation becomes apparent when repoling the crystal back into its original domain direction as a change in the distribution of displacement current as a function of voltage. This appears to be the process underlying the other recent work in the area of optical control of domain structures for quasi phase-matching of nonlinear processes. We present an explanation for this effect in terms of the micro-domain structure of SBN. This model should aid in the search for new materials for optical periodic poling

    Optofluidic integrated Bragg grating chemical sensor: Utilising a sodium-elective receptor surface to enhance detection

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    Planar waveguides can be written with a UV-laser into photosensitised silica to produce a wide range of optical devices. Careful modulation of two interfering beams allows Bragg gratings to be directly written into the channel. These Bragg gratings are inherently sensitive to temperature and strain, however etching away the surface exposes the mode within the grating to its surroundings. The corresponding observed shift in Bragg wavelength can be used to detect changes in this environment [1]. It has been previously reported [2] that the sensitivity of such a refractometer can be enhanced by over an order of magnitude through use of a high-index overlayer of tantalum pentoxide. This enhanced sensor has shown the potential to detect a single molecular monolayer upon the sensor surface [2]. This sensitivity was confirmed through the successful attachment and detection of a single molecular monolayer of a fluorescein-based organic dye to the sensor surface [3

    An integrated Bragg grating oxygen sensor using a hydrophobic sol-gel layer doped with an organic dye

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    Oxygen sensing is required for the understanding of many chemical processes across a diverse set of fields including medicine, environmental science and chemical synthesis. Oxygen sensing can be achieved through the use of electronic sensors. However, there are limitations associated with electronic sensors including susceptibility to electromagnetic interference and presenting a spark risk in flammable environments. Optical fiber and integrated optical chemical sensors overcome these limitations of electrical based sensing methods

    Facet machining of silica waveguides with nanoscale roughness without polishing or lapping

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    To achieve low-loss free space coupling for integrated optics, device facets need to be smooth, free of chips and flat. The typical route for accomplishing these requirements is by traditional lapping and polishing. We report that high quality optical quality facets with a Sa = 4.9 nm can be machined using a simple dicing technique. In order to directly measure the scatter loss a device with a series of Bragg gratings is used to characterise the average interface loss per facet